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Notes Week of 2-1

by: Alexandra Intriago

Notes Week of 2-1 PHIL109124

Alexandra Intriago
Perspectives on Western Culture II
Professor Connors

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About this Document

These notes cover class notes for the week of February 1, 2016.
Perspectives on Western Culture II
Professor Connors
Class Notes
philosophy, Perspectives, theology
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Intriago on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL109124 at Boston College taught by Professor Connors in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Perspectives on Western Culture II in Western Culture at Boston College.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Perspectives Week of 2116 Hobbes Leviathan Hobbes says nothing of freedom of will only of ability to choose otherwise Deterministic Our will can follow through 0 We can voluntarily act irrationally o Libertynecessity made compatible materialistic value Everything is predetermined Harming ruler would harm yourself 0 Ruler in charge of security 0 Making a mockery of agreeing to abide by social contract John Locke A Letter Concerning Toleration What is religion s purpose 0 Salvation of souls What is the commonwealth s purpose 0 Uphold civil interests A clear source of morality a mix of morality and religion Allusion to the Old Testament no moral framework to differentiate from right and wrong Church with State 0 Religion inspires fear 0 People fear government in the same way that they fear God 0 Advance own end of societal order 0 Alienates groups of society Locke alluding to allowing people to choose what they believe Freedom based on capacity to reason 0 Value this basic right or you do not Pg 25 hypocrisy o Locke accusing charity 0 Person doing coercing to convert is not being a Christianl doing opposite of what Christ did State has one purpose and Church has another purpose 0 Degree of separation o Separated interests State limited as to what it can do as a person 0 God never gave us authority to rule over other people 0 One person is not granted power of salvation Religion inward soul State outward but not directly affect the state of your soul 0 You cannot be charitable if you have no outward belongings o Locke looking at state through presentation Inward determination determines salvation Magistrate can only help external factors 0 Coercion goes against your conscience state cannot force you to do this De ne what it means to protect happiness life and liberty Magistrate cannot make you do something against your religion or conscience Church cannot deny you of civil liberties if you do not adhere by Church laws Freedom from religious discrimination o One s conscience Church cannot take over a state affair Magistrate cannot impose rules of Church on its citizens 2Ml Treatise of Government John Locke Monarchy implied by referral to Adam Robert Filmer 0 Used Bible to justify that absolute monarchy is the true form of government 0 Adam s sovereignty 1st Treatise debunk view that God gave power to Adam Absolute Monarchy human beings are essentially unfree o Forced to abide by laws that monarch sets forth 0 Humans cannot reason for themselves 0 God gives that person special dispensation enlightens him Divine right of kings John Locke believes in contrary of Absolute Monarchy 0 We are naturally free humans 0 Able to reason on our own Political power revolves around punishment for crimes 0 Whether or not it inhibits the public good 0 Public good private property and its preservation Locke private property is a reason to act State of Nature everyone is equal 0 State of perfect freedom 0 No innate ranking or social status within people 0 No such thing as subordination Because we all have the same faculties wills reason and no one intrinsically higher than someone else Locke s Law of Nature l we have the same desires 0 Golden Rule 0 Selfevident to us o What precisely distinguishes Hobbes and Locke s laws of nature 0 Hobbes since we want same things we will compete with each other 0 Locke reason grants us selfworthl grant self worth to others too 0 Mindsets can change depending how well you know the other person 0 Subjective mode of survival 0 When we observe human action golden rule goes out the window 0 Reason creatures of dignity Hobbes our motivation is based on our avoidance of forcewar 0 Submission of our choices for our own security 0 State of nature state of war 0 Hobbes nothing beyond matter and motion cannot allow for golden rule Liberty and License o It is distinct from Hobbes because it is distinct from License 0 License Hobbes s notion of liberty o Boils down to whether or not humans are aware of law With a state of nature you have ability and executive authority to kill someone 0 You have your own executive authority You need governmentauthority to determine what the punishment should be Same justifying reason for government as Hobbes security 0 A state of war may or may not occur ability to choose whether we get into con ict 0 State of war is an option authoritarian type of government not necessary Forms of government boil down to opinions on laws of nature Objection pulled directly from Old Testament Private Property 0 Does not want to appear as if he is disagreeing with the Bible 0 Absurd to have people seek authority from legislature who is not really there 0 Play on biblical passage to support nobility Things become property through labor 0 Your body is your own so what it acts on is an extension of yourbody 0 Labor adds to the value of nature 0 Taking it out of state of nature private property Earth is held in common because it s impossible to seek permission from each individual person Political society 0 Security 0 Impartial judge to settle disputes 0 Protect private property Legislative power make laws Executive power enforce them In political society you give up legislative and executive powers so you don t take it too far 0 Powers conserved but vested in someone other than you Absolute monarchy is bad and no government at a no judge of monarch o Hobbes monarchy is best form of government Majority vote because you submit to it Limited to public good property 0 lnherently negative negative rights noninterference You can t make laws without telling them to the people indifferent judge Can t take property without consent Can t transfer legislative power to other hands Executive power 0 Internal violations Legislative better than executive because it is done for the people Legislative power 0 Needs consent of people Tyranny exercise of power beyond right Revolutionopposition to unlawful ruling o Tyranny destroys the government and laws Monarch is not government anyway according to Locke 0 Don t have to obey Dissolution of government 0 Prince prevents legislative from meeting Prince interferes election process Making own laws Defer power to another Legislative invade property 0000


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