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Biology 100 D week notes

by: Anneka sundell

Biology 100 D week notes Biol 1000

Marketplace > Fort Hays State University > Biology > Biol 1000 > Biology 100 D week notes
Anneka sundell
GPA 3.4

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These notes cover chemistry, properties of water, and macromolecules
Human Biology
Mr. Jeff Carter
Class Notes
Science, Biology, Human Biology, Macromolecules
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anneka sundell on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1000 at Fort Hays State University taught by Mr. Jeff Carter in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Fort Hays State University.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
BIOL 100 D 1 ~Chemistry~  All forms of life are made of matter and carry out processes that involve energy  Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space  Energy: the ability to do work   Two types of energy: 1. Potential Energy: stored energy that is not doing any work  Ex. A spring, compressed in a box 2. Kinetic Energy: energy of motion that is doing work  Ex. Spring bouncing around the room  Laws of Thermodynamics  1. Energy can neither be created or destroyed, but can change forms  Water behind a dam   Water has potential energy to do work, but is being stored  When the water is let go, the energy is now kinetic, though the  water is moving it still has the same level of energy  2. Energy cannot be changed from one form to another without a loss of usable  energy  Amount of disorder in the universe naturally increases  Dam will eventually erode with age  Entropy:  the relative amount of disorganization  Five forms of Energy 1. Mechanical: energy associated with things in motion and that have energy  (including organisms)  Can be potential or kinetic  2. Nuclear: Energy derived from the reaction (changes) that include the atomic  nucleus  Not associated with biological matter 3. Electrical: from the flow of charged particles  Ex. Nervous system  4. Radiant: heat and light are the most familiar forms of radiant energy  Light that is caught and released by sun 5. Chemical Energy: stored in matter in the form of chemical bonds  BIOL 100 D 2 Ionic Bonds: forms when two atoms are held together by the attraction between opposite  charges 6. These atoms are either gaining or losing an electron  Cation: positively charged atoms that lose an electron  Anion: negatively charged atoms tat gained an electron 7. Formed by an attraction of anions and cations  Many of compounds are formed by ionic bonds are important in biology    Most everything in the human body doesn’t use these  8. Ex. NaCl   Covalent Bonds: results when two atoms share electrons in order to have a completed  outer shell.  1. Some electrons naturally fill electrons shells of atoms 2. Strongest bond  Takes A LOT of energy to break these bonds 3. Most biological compounds are held together by covalent bonds   Hydrogen Bond: between the slightly negative part of a molecule and the slightly  positive part of another molecule 1. Electrons are not equally shared 2. Usually occur between  O, N, Fl, H 3. Not common in living things  ~Water~  Most important molecule in life  All living systems take advantages of its properties o 70% of organisms by weight   Most of the molecules that make up a living being exist in solution inside the cells  Hydrogen bonding plays a large role in giving water its properties   The Polar (all atoms on both sides of the bond are equally charged) nature of water is  what allows it to dissolve so many compounds o molecules must be made of atoms with positive or negative charges to be  dissolved in water o ionic molecules (ex. NaCl) split into their component ions upon dissolving in  water o they split about because of water Hydrogen (H) bonds to the ions o when the ions are bound with the water molecules, the can’t bind to each other  and stay dissolved until the absence of water  BIOL 100 D 3 ~Freezing~  Water that contains dissolved ions has lower freezing points than pure water   The water molecules are bound to the ions vie hydrogen bonding, and can’t bond to each other to form ice crystals   If the temperature is lowered even further, the molecules lose energy ad slow down enough to form crystals  ~pH ~  pH: This is a measure of the acidity of an aqueous solution  The acidity of a solution is determined by the number of Hydrogen ions (H+) it contains  pH is expressed as a logarithm of the number of H+ ions dissolved per liter of solution  Water undergoes dissociations into its ionic components: o H20       H+ + OH­  o H+ ions are acidic  o OH­ ions are basic   In pure water only about in 10,000,000 molecules will do this o This is 1 in 10^7                                                                     Not on test  ~Macromolecules~  Macromolecules: very large molecules with molecular weight sin the tends of thousands  o Four major classes of biological molecules 1. Proteins 2. Nucleic Acids 3. Carbohydrates 4. Lipids   Macromolecules all have some features in common  o Composed of Polymers  1. Polymers are composed of smaller subunits, known as monomers 2. Large molecules formed by adding many subunits together  BIOL 100 D 4 Carbohydrates: play a central role in biological systems   Common rood source  Part of the backbone of nucleic acids  Storage form of food sources  Have structural cell walls   Monomer: Monosaccharides  o simple sugars o classified based upon how many carbon atoms they contain  5­carbon monosaccharides  Ribose in RNA  Deoxyribose in DNA  6­carbon monosaccharides  Glucose  Fructose  Galactose   Disaccharides: composed of 2 covalently linked monosaccharides o Common disaccharides:  Lactose = galactose + glucose  Sucrose= fructose + glucose o Monosaccharides ae synthesized to make disaccharides o Disaccharides can be broken down, returning to their monosaccharide  constituents   Polymer: Polysaccharides o Compared of multiple monosaccharide subunits connected together o Many kinds of polysaccharides exist in nature  Cellulose, chitin, pectin, amylose, agar Proteins:  Proteins make up about 50% of the dry weight of a cell  Many important function in living systems o Enzymes o Movement (flagella) o Structural building material o Entry into cells o Gene regulators  BIOL 100 D 5   Monomer: amino acid subunits o All amino acids have an amino group and a carboxyl group  o There are 20 amino acids commonly used in life  Differ in form  These differences in form give each amino acid its unique property  Peptide Bonds: o Connect amino acid subunits  o Covalent bond  Formed by a special type of synthesis carried out by enzymes   Polymer: Polypeptide chain o Formed by amino acid subunits that are assembled by peptide bonds  o Each polypeptide chain has an amino end and a carboxyl end o In living systems, proteins are always made starting at the amino end o Some proteins consist of a s single long polypeptide chain and others are  made up of several polypeptide chains   Proteins have four levels of organization:  o Primary: the sequence of amino acid subunits that make up the protein  o Secondary: the folding arrangement of the polypeptide chain  α helix (spiral)  β pleated sheet (pleated sheet)  these configurations arise primarily due to hydrogen bonding  between amino acid subunits in the polymer chain  in order of amino acids (primary structure) in the protein  determines the secondary structure  o Tertiary: the folding of the secondary structural features into a specific  shape  Most common are:  Globular  Fibrous  The tertiary structure of a protein is often determined by a  hydrophobic or hydrophilic activities of the amino acids   o Quaternary: level or arrangement where a protein may consist of more  than one polypeptide chain  Common example is hemoglobin (4 polypeptide chains)  Often proteins will function as a part of a larger multicellular  complex as in many enzymes in metabolism  BIOL 100 D 6  Denaturation:  o Proteins must be in the proper shape for proper function o Different factors determine whether a protein maintains his proper shape  Temperature  pH  ionic strength environment  o if these are altered too much a protein may become denatured, or lose its  shape  o the denatured protein may lose function and may have greatly altered  physical characteristics o sometimes denaturation is reversible, sometimes not.  Nucleic Acids:  The nucleic acids seen in life are   DNA  Deoxyribonucleic acid  RNA  Ribonucleic acid  DNA: carries the genetic information of the cell  Nucleic acids are polymers made up of nucleotide units   Monomer: nucleotide bases  Polymer: nucleic acids   A nucleotide subunit consists of   Phosphate group  Sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)  Base   Nucleic acids:   contain two kinds of bases:  Purines: o Adenine o Guanine  Pyrimidines: o Cytosine o Thymine (DNA only) o Uracil (RNA only) BIOL 100 D 7  Sugar/phosphate backbone: A phosphodiester bond connects the  nucleotides  Links the phosphate group of one nucleotide to the sugar in  the next nucleotide  DNA is really a double stranded molecule like a twisted ladder  Rails of the ladder are the sugar/phosphate backbone  Rungs of the ladder are the nucleotide bases   Base pairing  The bases project into the interior of the molecule and hydrogen bond  with a base on the opposite strand  The bases can only bond to a specific partner:  Adenine          Thymine  Cytosine         Guanine    RNA: very similar to DNA, but has the following differences   Single­stranded instead of double­stranded  Has the sugar ribose instead of deoxyribose  Has the unit Uracil instead of Thymine   Three kinds of RNA found in cells  Messenger RNA  (mRNA) “central dogma of molecular biology” o Links the genetic information stored in the DNA to the  formation of proteins   Transfer RNA (tRNA)  Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Lipids:   Includes biological fats and oils  There are three kinds of lipids classified by their chemical structures  o True fats­olive oil, corn oil, etc o Phospholipids­ component of cell membranes Polymers: o Steroids­ found in some hormones and cholesterol   Monomer: glycerol and fatty acid  True fats: o formed from fatty acids connected to a glycerol o fatty acids are long hydrocarbon molecules with an organic acid (COOH)  at one end  o there can be anywhere from 1 to 3 fatty acids connected to the glycerol  monglycerides have 1 fatty acid  diglycerides have 2 fatty acids BIOL 100 D 8  triglycerides have 3 fatty acids  o in the fatty acid chain, the carbon atoms may be connected two separate  ways:  single bonds  makes the fatty acid chain saturated o saturated with hydrogen atoms o makes lipids that are solid at room temperature  Double bonds  Makes the fatty acid unsaturated  o Do not have as many hydrogen atoms as the  saturated fatty acid o Double bonds make kinks in the chains o Makes lipids that are liquid at room temperature  o May have many double bonds  monosaturated: one double bond  Polysaturated: many double bonds o Essential fatty acids: fatty acids needed by the body that have to be  consumed from the diet 4 o Cis fatty acids: saturated fatty acids that have their hydrogen atoms on the same side of the molecule o Trans Fatty acids:  saturated fatty acids that have the hydrogen atoms on  opposite sides of the molecule   Found in: cattle, sheep, horses  Humans get their trans fatty acids through the diet  Donuts, cookies, French fries  Produced by the hydrogenation of vegetable of fish oils  Adds hydrogen atoms and breaks some hydrogen atoms  Makes the fatty acid solid at room temp  Ex. Margarine   Medical implications  Raise total blood cholesterol levels Increase chance   Raise bad cholesterol (LDL) of heart disease   Lower good cholesterol (HDL)


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