Note for HISTORY 150 at UMass
Note for HISTORY 150 at UMass
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Date Created: 02/06/15
History Final Exam Study Guide KN OW the historical significance and the consequences Focus mostly on the SECOND HALF ESSAY broad themes 1 Bacon 5 Rebellion a Events leading up to Bacons Rebellion i Social unrest ii Sir William Berkeley wealthy colonial governor decides to make a treaty with the native fur traders he compares VA with Barbados because of their sugar cane trade People have little inclination to abide by Berkeley iii There are challenges faced by free land owning men they are alienated by political leaders and the men who had been born in Virginia see themselves as quotVirginiansquot and therefore have little inclination to abide by old English laws There are also challenges faced by small farmers they are taxed the same as large plantation owners iv Challenges by Newly Freed men after working off their indentured they have problems of acquiring land they cannot move westward and there is a seX ratio imbalance the elite have all of the power and the recently freed men cannot become head of the household INDENTURED SERVANTS usually have a term of 7 years the punishment for them is longer terms v Bacon is wealthy but cannot get a societal position so he moves inland buys some land and gets elected b Bacon organizes the rebellion i Gathers poor lower class men indentured servants natives African American men to CHALLENGE the elite ii 1676 organizes back country by making them feel as if they are important by 1 swearingoaths of loyalty which usually only the white rich men did 2 mobilizes them by making them feel like they have been 39enslaved by the elite and the rebellion will 39free them 3 he makes them feel honorable and gives them weapons which makes them feel powerful c The rebellion i Destroy crops livestock humans ii September 1776 They burn Jamestown and the governor ees bacon is on the verge of taking over iii October the rebellion dies and so does Bacon d Consequences of the rebellion i The largest military rebellion to government in the colonies until the revolution bacon dies with the rebellion ii The elite are now aware of the unrest the middlingpoorunfree are not politicized there are stricters laws about race and status iii Berkely must repair allies with the fur trading nations iv Berkely comes back with a vengeance against the rebellions calling them traitors and punishing them v FIRST distinction of servant vs enslaved person 2 quotPartus Sequitur Ventrem a the fourth major distinction in the new idea of enslaved person versus an indentured servant b literally means in latin quotthe child follows the mothers legal status c children born to enslaved women are enslaved children born to free women are free d most dramatic legal shift in colonial America it overturned five centuries of English common law about fathers and legal statuses 3 quotDurante Vita a the first provision in the distinction b literally means lifelong which is describing slavery 4 Play off diplomacy in Lower Mississippi Valley a England is allied with the Chickasaws and Creeks at MS valley they are arming them to raid colonies and take slaves b French are allied with Choctaws in Lousiana to protect Choctaws military and to help the French farmfood the French don t want to enslave the Choctaws c The Play Off System i diplomacy two are allied as brothers and have a gift exchange which maintains the alliance ii The Brits want to take over the Choctaws and since the French are no longer supplying them with goods they can choose between the French and the British iii Eventually the Choctaws side with the British iv All territory East of the Mississippi is England s now in secret the French turn all of the land west of the Mississippi to Spain which includes New Orleans an important port for trade v This is the beginning of the heart of the con icts between French and British in the seven years war 5 Stono Rebellion SC 1739 a Charleston SC are focused on issues other than the slaves such as small pox and other escape issues to St Augustine SAFE PLACE FOR SLAVES b The rebellion i September 9 1739 ii Rebellion on a Sunday a group of slaves escape raid stores and kill shop owners and march out of Charlestown c Significanceamp consequences ii iii iv They march and hold white banners they are organized as a group and have done this successfully Charlestown is focused on the epidemic It was a Sunday where everyone was in church men were not allowed to have guns in church at that time In two weeks from that date a law was to go into effect that men were allowed to have guns in church It was not accidentally planned it shows that these men are skilled military men and they are good at combat IT shows that they pay attention to the news they are Catholic and they are very intelligent 6 Seven Years War events leading to the revolution a Also known as the French and Indian War i ii iii iv Over the issue of quotsovereigntyquot which is the right for a power to govern themselves It paves the way for the revolutionary war French empire covers a large span of the colonies and they rely on the native allies the colonists realize that they empire that will have control is the country who will maintain diplomatic relations with the natives There are a series of skirmishes and ultimately the French lose all of their territory the iroqouis confederacy sides with the English b RESULTS that pave the way for the revolution 1 ii iii iv Vi 1756 a technical declaration of war on eachother England V France The British general William Pitt calls for impressment meaning that the colonial men must serve under their commanders thiscauses a number of tensions with the colonists who currently reside in the colonies 1 colonists have been accustomed to running their own issues 2 political leaders don t consider themselves united 3 getting everyone together as one 4 colonies are facing a common enemy French and Allies This leads to a single ruling body Benjamin Franklin ampThe Albany Plan the parliament should make a single governing body for the colonies led by a president appointed by the king and a legislature elected by the colonial legislatures assemblies They have the power to negotiate and govern relations Colonists are not satisfied with this plan 1758 William Pitt feels his rejection with impressment so he 1 relents changes policies c 1763 i ii iii iv v vi Equot abandons impressment sends more british troops to fight against the French in the summer British dominate the war when Jeffery Amherst and James Wolfe seize quebec a French fort Peace Treaty dramatic effects on colonists native effects French withdraw troops Disastrous for the native French allies because British won No play off diplomacy anymore England has no need to maintain alliances with the natives because they now have total control 3 4 d Consequences 1 ii Service within the colonial branch of the army draws the men together across boundary lines and they create a peoples army which includes local colonial people and not the Brits For England 1 Doubles size of English empire Peace for the first time Find themselves in an immense war debt They need to reseed their economy exert authority over colonies they want more than just trade from the colonies they view the land itself as revenue generating territory the valuable land can support a larger taxable p op ulation 2 3 4 e The last straws for colonists 1 ii iii iv They made sacrifices in the war that went unappreciated Sugar Act 1764 attempts to eradicate illegal sugar trade in indies Currency act 1764 colonial governments cannot issue their own paper money anymore Stamp act 1765 imposes a tax of printed documents 7 Lord Dunmore s proclamation a Dunmore is a colonial governor of Virginia from England i ii Spring 1775 he publicly discusses the possibility of arming enslaved people Late 1775 the military plan for Britain is to make a diversion in the South they send irish soldiers to fight for dunmoe and recruit servants convicts and African Americans of the Chesapeake Region to fight b Proclamation i C Strategy where the slaves and indentured servants fight for Britain against the colonial army Consequences ii iii iv Britain grants slaves and servants freedom after service Strategy signals that British understand con ict Goal to destablize colonies because colonies have investments in these slaves and servants This is not a humanitarian cry for equal rights by the British it is merely for their use Colonists are siding with the patriots because they do not want to arm the slaves but in December 1775 GW realizes the strength and begins allowing slaves to serve in the army but he does not grant them freedom for serving they serve on the battle field and as scouts and laborers d Post War Slavery because of this 1 ii iii iv 20000 slaves leave the US to go to Canada where there is freedom black patriots who secured freedom form the nucleus of free black communities in northern and southern cities black men clearly overcame the racist stereotypes about being physically and intellectually week they have the skills and virtues and they are not dumb Richard Allen freedom HIS EULOGY 1 a slave that bought his own freedom 2 established schools churches became a minister 3 writes a euology for CW and pays tribute to him 8 Declaration of Independence international amp ideological significance a quotwequot the people i actual text does not attribute a vision to a certain person it is a corporate document that is argumentative b Five main parts on what it declares 1 ii iii iv V Immediate statement ofpurpose one people to unite and dissolve the political connections with Britain Articulates principles on which legitimate government rests List of grievances for the king Responses to colonial complaints have been ignored by England quotdeaf to the voice ofjustice End colonies quotoughtquot to be free independent states premising argument of the notion of natural rights c Audience is national and the purpose is to establish independence d Idealogical implications i ii iii 1857 quotthe assertion was of no importance or impractical use for Britain but for future use Lincoln it was used in post revolution debates over infrastructure slavery and territorial issues and is referred to forever in documents and speeches internatiaonlly the US wanted to be recognized as a power of the earth among the superior powers and they also wanted to be global allies with other powers 9 Natural rights philosophy a John Locke English philosopher during enlightenment b Says that the evidence of natural rights comes straight from the bible argues this in his natural rights philosophy i On slavery quotnatural liberty is inherent ii On property quotlabor in the beginning gave the right of property iii There are tensions between rights and abilities 10 Republicanism a The ideology of governing a nation as a republic where the head of state is appointed by means other than hereditary often through elections It involved sovereignty the right of a body to govern themselves Power divided between citizenship and birth Well being of society is put ahead ofpersonal interest Federalists i Believed in a strong national government ii Iohn jay james Madison aleX Hamilton Iefferson GW iii Argument if citizens are too close to power it is a threat for chaos they stress to keep the distance from the masses 11 Republican motherhood origins goals and scope a A new and important role for women i They are affected greatly by the revolution because the men left to fight in the patriot armie and the women were left on their own to run farms andbusinesses therefore the poor women needed to scrape by ii The women are put into new economic and social roles where their actions now matter iii They are engaged in riots they organize protests iv It raises the importance of women s domestic labor they stop being textiles and home spin their own clothing v ABIGAIL ADAMS argues that women need to be able to have identity of their own vi They need to be educated to educate the younger children separate US from GE They should have the same curriculum as men 12 US constitution amp slavery a The US constitution mentions slavery in four main places b However the words in the constitution don t mention the words quotslavequot or quotslaveryquot i 35 compromise Article 1 Section 2 Paragraph 3 1 says that the slave counts as 35 of a person in the house of representatives which is based on population ii Translatlantic slave trade Article 1 Section 9 Paragraph 1 1 Slaveholders want to make sure that their interests are protected under the transatlantic slave trade QEDPP iii Fugitive Slave Clause Article 4 Section 2 Paragraph 3 1 Ifa slave escapes from his master into a free state it doesn t matter the slave must be returned iv No Amendments can be made to Article 1 section 9 Paragraph 1 the slave importation and taxation clauses until the year 1808 13 Iefferon s Vision of an agrarian republic a A society based on farming b MIDTERM 14 Lewis amp Clark expedition a Northwest Ordinance 1787 b Iefferson 18021803 1 Iefferson sends a secret message to congress to get money granted to him to send Lewis and Clark on a mission west of the Mississippi ii Lewis and Clark are to go west and discover 1 Crops farming 2 Land rivers mountains 3 The native peoples find the British French and Spanish traders 4 They are also supposed to find a water route to the pacific ocean iii 1803 Louisiana Purchase 1 he is convinced to do away with his strict adherence 2 buys property for 15 million 3 United States doubles in size 4 They are no longer just exploring they are now conquering 5 It is the first big government funded contract for western settlement 15 Domestic slave trade a With the invention of the cotton industry came a major increase in the domestic slave trade 1 Deep south quotthe cotton kingdom ii There is a major expansion in manufacturing iii New roads canals railroads for shipping banking credit systems and an insurance industry iv This expansion spreads from the upper south SC VA NC GA t the lower quotdeepquot south TX FL AR AL MS LA MO TN NC VA SC DC SLAVERY is always a question b Life on cotton plantations 1 Gang 2025 people system is used iconic image ii Sun upsun down they are driven by overseer who is paid to oversee them the able bodies work and they are divided by ability Gangs move through the field together iii They have no free time and no movement iv Social life 1 50100 enslaved per plantation 2 there are networks on and across plantations v the domestic slave trade growns immensely between the years of18201860 1 By 1830s one million people are channeled from upper south to the lower south vi Consequences 1 Posed a contradiction 2 The owners would say that their families were my family white and black displaying that there is a sense of paternalism natural hierarchy and mutual obligation between them 3 Families are separated by sale within this trade it is evidence that this is not a benign natural relationship they were purchased with cash and credit 4 Terms a Cof es groups of slaved purchased b quotSold down River to parts unknown c DC emerged as urban center of domestic slave trade it was unavoidable EVEN in the capital of the country 16 Charles ball a Wrote the life and adventures of Charles Ball i A fascinating realistic account of slave life in this time period ii He writes that slavery is quotone long waste barren desert of cheerless hopeless lifeless slavery to be varied only by the pangs of hunger and the stings of the lashquot iii He recalls the pains of slave life such as having family members being sold away and gives detailed accounts of the environments he was in iv He also discusses how the invention of the cotton gin affected and slavery and further fueled slavery in the United States 17 Indian removal a What is the legal relationship between native Americans and the us i Where do they fit in socially and how do they fit into the legal framework 1830s b Vocabulary i Uncivilized not agricultural societies male hunt deer for sport while the women do the respectable work such as farming they are not Christian owning tools and crops counts as owning property where in the US owning property and being defined is owning LAND ii Scientific racism permanent inherent inferiority of the natives iii The 5 civilized tribes Cherokee and Choctaw GA NC Chickasaw MS Creek AL FL and the Seminole FL c Jefferson s policies 1 ii iii iv v vi vii Owning property was the cornerstone of citizenship Expansion west of the MS was to discover native populations He passes the Article 1 Section 8 Paragraph 3 saying that commerce can be exchanged with the Indians In his letter to Lewis he says that they need to take note of the Indians treat them with friendliness and respect tell them that we will help them teach them and their children he says to take as many notes as possible to quotbetter enable those who endeavor to civilize and instruct them He makes it clear that he does not intend to destroy them He also makes it clear that he is very interested in expansion and that he considers the natives as quotuncivilizedquot In his message to congress he conveys his ideas to work with the natives d Iackson s policies 1 ii iii iv V vi vii viii Says that the negotiations are absurd Thinks that the natives should be treated as quotsubjectsquot December 1829 wants money to remove the natives westward 1830 Indian Removal Act gives president authority to make treaties for removal of the natives Iackson ignores two supreme court decisions about the laws with Georgia and the Cherokees 1 Cherokee nation v Georgia a Supreme Court doesn t rule because Cherokee lacks standing as a nation 2 Worcester v Georgia a Missionaries Sam Worcester Elizor Butler refuse Georgia oaths Supreme court says that Georgia law doesn t extend to Cherokee nations b Iackson responds to this by telling the natives to either accept it or move west that Georgia has their own claim to sovereignty 1836 treaty of New Echota 1 minority of Cherokees move westward 2 majority refuses Iackson sends 7000 troops to forcibly remove them they give up 100 million acres and get 30 million acres west of the Mississippi Jackson is brutal forces them to leave An article by Lewis Cass removal of the Indians 1830 1 Goes along with Jackson 2 Says that they tried to civilize them with missionaries that they are wretched races it has become a moral issue that they are ignorant and barbarous against the government and laws 3 quotin the contest for sovereignty the uncivilized tribes must yield the natives 18 Henry Knox Indian quotcivilizationquot program a United StatesIndian policy b Includes four main provisions i Government will recognize Indian nations as sovereign independent nations that are able to govern themselves ii US must prohibit illegal intrusion ofUS citizens into their territory iii Eventually they will surrender land peacefully and through treaties ofnegotiation iv Believed that the natives were quotuncivilizedquot and thought these policies would help to quotcivilizequot them 19 Worcester v Georgia see above 20 Moses Austin amp Stephen Austin a Moses Austin receives land grant in 1820 from Spain to secure border in Tejas despite filibusters i He is allowed to settle 300 US families in Tejas ii He dies son Stephen Austin settles the grant after Mexican independence 21 US colonization ofTejas Texas Independence a Lawmakers and settlers see the region of Tejas as a safe haven for economic ventures directly tied to slavery i They can continue slave trade cotton agriculture and the transatlantic slave trade off the coast ofTejas ii the question of annexing Texas gives us another case study of thinking about how law makers are grappling with the issue of expansion within the United States b immigrants to Tejas i use rhetoric of individual rights to criticize the Mexican federal government they use natural rights arguments ii cast themselves as unfairly subjected to the power of the Mexican federal government iii complain about taxes levied against them property issues difficulties in maintaining slavery because the rest ofmexico has abolished slavery iv they object to the federal governments decision in 1830 to cut ofoS immigration to Texas saying that it infringes on their natural rights to acquire and own property and gain prosperity v they criticize the culture of the people among who they live arguing that Mexican culture and citizens are inferior to those of the United States and the exertion ofpower from the federal Mexican government is unjust for an inferior culture to rule over an advance culture C Mexican colonists i ii iii iv Called quottejanosquot Were called immoral lazy and unmanly because they had a different set of ideas about development and property ownership than the immigrants from the US Large extended family networks tended to own large amounts ofproperty ideas behind ownership in communities tended to be more kinship oriented A few wealthy families that owned the land and subdivided the land into poorer families the land is a collective resource the fact that the texas colonists are critical of this is ironic because tejanos were more in line with the Jefferson society of agrarians Other issues racial identity wealth property legal status free or enslaved marriage among races meant that most citizens including the powerful ones claimed diverse ancestry and family backgrounds which to the colonists and immigrants looked like racial and social CHAOS d Texas Independence 1 ii iii iv TeXas declares itselfa sovereign republic on March 2 1836 Four days later armed con ict between Mexican army and texas patriots breaks out quotremember the Alamo 9 Mexican troops killed Texas patriots they strike a bargain with the general santaana in exchange for his life and he declares texas a free and independent nation e Treaty ofVelasco i Two main provisions that specifically address the issue of property the rest of the document talks about the peaceful exiting of troops from the newly freed land 1 Mexico will restore seized property Sacrosanct right to own property 2 It addresses the ownership of slaves by Texans f Annexation ofTexas i ii iii Causes national political con icts in the United States Whigs are largely opposed to annexation Democrats are divided over annexation iv Texas is annexed as 15th slave state on December 1845 1 It becomes a major issue in political debates 2 Causes factionalism within parties 3 Northern whigs are opposed to annexation New England morally opposed because of the fear of slavery and adding slave territory a They are also worried about pragmatic costs about potentially engaging in war with Mexico 4 Democrats are divided over the issue some southern democrats support economic expansion others fear that the expansion will weaken the profitability of the existing slave states V Annexation treaty does not address slavery it extends the rights and priveleges of US citizens to the citizens of Texas quotaffirmsquot the citizens of Texas right to their liberty and property in accordance with the laws of the constitution which is telling them that they CAN own slaves Vi Mexican War 18461848 1 America s first foreign war 2 Is the war just 3 Treaty of GuadalupeHidalgo ends war 22 quotManifest Destiny a a journalist john O Sullivan coined the phrase b purpose to advocate for annexation of Texas overspread the continent allotted by God for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions c The Americans have a right and a destiny to overtake the continent future of the people lies in westward expansion d widespread belief that the nation was racially culturally defined as well as territorially and politically defined 23 Harriet Iacobs a Wrote Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl 1861 1 ii iii Written about her life in slavery in Edenton NC Describes her escape to freedom in Brooklyn Published in 1861 iv Owned by a kind mistress V She learns to read and write orphaned has her grandmother Vi Grandmother gains her freedom Vii She is relentlessly pursued sexually by her master viii She runs away hides out in her grandmothers attic for seven years in a crawl space ix Characters 1 Harriet Iacobs 2 William brother 3 Dr Flint master 4 Benjamin uncle 5 Benjamin son 6 Ellen daughter x She h s two children watched them grow up from an attic xi She uses a pseudonym xii xiii She makes fake names for the entire family This book is NOT A NOVEL it is an autobiography 24 Female respectability a A theme in slave narratives b Female authors especially focused on the representation of enslaved women for the purpose of refuting prevailing stereotypes that black women were immoral that they lacked maternal capacity and that they were hyp ersexual c Respectability is a term that historians used to address womanhood d Their quotlevelquot of respectability i 19th century ideal female identity ii reserved for middleupper class white women explicity excludes women regardless ofwealth e RESPECTABILITY appropriate sexuality virtue beauty refinement and level of intelligence 25 Fugitive Slave Law 185 0 a Was a very controversial law b Says that slaves must be returned to their owners c Northerners didn t like this because it involved them in the process of slavery a process they did not wish to be involved in i It criminalized assisting or even knowing about a runaway ii Empowers federal marshals to deputize local law enforcement and citizens to help capture suspected fugitives iii This outrages the northerners iv Creates federal commissioner to hear cases of runaways v Slaveholders have low burden of proof only need a sworn statement or one witness to prove the slave as their own Vi Accused person can t testify or have witnesses in their defense 26 American Colonization Society a Established in 1816 b Oppose slavery but also oppose the presence of Free African Americans in the United States c Oppose US citizenship for African Americans d Favor gradual emancipation 27 American AntiSlavery Society a Established in 1833 b Abolition will be peaceful completion ofAmerican Revolution c Third document in the declaration d Plan i Includes grassroots organizing education lectures writing ii Religious and secular venues iii Economic action through strategic purposing careful to argue that this next chapter of revolution in America will be a PEACEFUL revolution e Declaration i quottheir patriots principles led them to wage war against oppressorsour principles forbid the doing of evil ii quotentreat the oppressed to reject the use of weapons for deliverance from the bondage iii they regard eXpatriation taking people out of the country as dangerous iv rejects the idea of compensating slaveholders because freeing slaves is restoring property to the rightful owner not stealing or violating the property of the slave holders 28 William Lloyd Garrison a Invited to the American Colonization Society i He addresses them with a speech quotTo what to the slave is the fourth of july on July 4 1 Says that it is a day that established the liberties of brave people the politics are rotten to the core 2 Says he is not biased not taking a side 3 Goes on to CONDEMN slavery objects that states cannot intervene with another 4 Supports originally the idea of gradual abolition but warns that this must occur or else the enslaved people will have a revolution of their own ii 1831 1 rejects the colonization movement and his attitudes towards abolition and changes his opinion 2 he advocates now IMMEDIATE abolition 29 Moral Suasion a Political argument framed in moral terms b Appeals to higher principles of humanity and Christianity Iustice amp compassion 30 Angelina Grimke A leader in the anti slavery movement An advocator ofwomen s rights Sister Sarah Grimke Came from a wealthy slaveholding family in SC Her actions i She is motivated to action because of the burning of mail and an effigy of garrison in Charleston SC in 1835 ii She is motivated to get involved iii She writes to Garrison and expresses her support of his work and begins her own career 1 She starts Women s Petitions a Direct contact with national government b It was successful when protesting Indian removal now they have a voice c They are very successful in petitioning 2 Her and Sarah become public speakers a First women agents full time professional lecturers of the AASS 9999 b Defies the gender conventionrespectability c Women are not supposed to speak publicly especially not to the audience ofmen 3 Angelina argues that women are the moral and civic equals of men 31 quotGag Rule a bars reading antislavery petitions on the oor of the house b renewed each year 183 644 c this only sparks greater support for abolition d FUELS THE FIRE 32 Elizabeth Cady Stanton 18151902 a Inspired by Grimke but goes in another direction i She is a representative ofa younger generation ii Represent women who viewed womens rights as secular and legal issues not moral iii Not interested in issues of racial equality even among women iv Daughter ofprominent NY politician and lawyer Daniel Cady she studies in his office with him V Focused on the ways laws create and maintain social hierarchies b Actions i Petitions for a law in NY in 1848 1 State laws protect married womens rights to retain ownership of the property they brought into the marriage or inherited from father ii Organizes womens rights convention with Lucretia Mott in July of 1848 iii 1848 address 1 direct engagement with ideals of natural rights declaration and the constitution 2 sets forth a clear strategy that laws can create or dissolve hierarchy and inequality collective struggle aimed at structures of oppression 33 Married Women s property acts a State laws that protect married womens rights to retain ownership of the property they brought into the marriage or inheritedreceived from father b quotprotectquot women from economic uncertainty c not REALLY about women s rights 34 Seneca Falls Convention a Tapped into existing organizational structure of women s anti slavery societies and used those for convention b Secular approach had a broad appeal LEGAL i Focus on married women s property rights ii Appealed to wealthy and poor women iii Framed a wide range of social issues such as temperance employment as women s issues iv They discuss these issues as legal matters which appeals to everyone at the convention 35 Dred Scott v Sanford a US supreme court case 18561857 i Decision about the status of free black people in the US and expansion of slavery in the US ii Heightens ignites growing sectional crisis over slavery in the United States iii Helps Lincoln win 1860 presidential election this sets the stage for South Carolina s secession from the union b Wisconsin Territory free because i NW ordinance banned slavery in territory west and north of the ohio river ii Wisconsin territory law states that laws of Michigan free state apply in Wisconsin iii Missouri Compromise 1820 1 Creates maine as a free state 2 Admits Missouri as a slave state 3 Slavery will be quotforever prohibited in territory north and west of the Missouri c Dred Scott i Born into slavery in 1800 in VA ii Sold to Dr John Emerson in 1832 iii Emerson takes Scott to Illinois free state and Wisconsin territory free for five years iv Scott marries Harriet Robinson an enslaved women and they have two daughters together d Late 1830s i Emerson moves to Lousiana ii Marries Eliza Sandfordampemerson dies in 1843 iii Eliza Sandford inherits his estate including the Scott family e Dred Scott pursues freedom i 1846 he asks to purchase family s freedom ii begins lawsuit for his freedom arguing that by bringing him to live in Illinois and Wisconsin emerson essentially freed him 1 Missouri Court Case a 1850 Missouri state court awards Dred Scott his freedom b 1852 Missouri state supreme court overturns this decision therefore Scott is still enslaved 2 US supreme court a Scott s appeal is heard by SC b Court rules 72 upholding earlier rulings that Scott family remains enslaved f c It was a week long case d From the beginning it captured the nations attention and compassion Chiequstice Roger B Taney i Delivers majority opinion on March 6 1857 ii Hopes to bring the national crisis over slavery to an end iii His ruling what its based on 1 African American citizenship a quotthe question is simply this can a negro whose ancestors were imported into this country and sold as slaves become a member of thie political community formed and brough into existence by the constitution of the US and as such become entitled to all the rights priveleges immunities guaranteed by that instrument to the citizen b Says that they are not and were not intended to be included as citizens 2 State and National citizenship a Taney argues that even if free black people have state citizenship this does not guarantee national citizenship b He makes a clear distinction between the rulings of the states individually and rulings of the national government 3 Citizenship amp the constitution a Article 1 section 3 citizens of each state vote for national lawmakers b Article 3 establishes the supreme court and rights of citizens of the states to sue in the federal court 4 Racial Hierarchy a Taney bases his reasoning on the ideology of racial hierarchy and black inferiority b Dismissed the presence of rights of free black people in the United States c quotthey had no rights in which the white man was bound to respect 5 Taney on expansion a Instead of dismissing the case on the grounds that Scott does not have the right to use the federal court system because he is black Taney goes on to address the crisis of territorial expansion of slavery b THIS IS HIS POLITICAL GOAL for the case and his ruling and why he draws out the decision 6 5th amendment a Taney argues that NW ordinance and M0 compromise and any other congressional efforts to ban slavery in federal territory violates the fifth amendment protection of individual property rights b quotno person shall be deprived oflife liberty or property without the due process of the law 7 DRED SCOTT obtains freedom a Purchased by the sons of his original owner b VA in 1857 c Dred Scott dies in February 1858 8 National significance a Since Mexican American war ended nation was increasingly divided over the expansion of slavery into newly acquired territory b Fugitive slave law 1850 Dred Scott Case c Growing sense of pro slavery conspiracy in national government vs the relief that the national government is protecting slavery 36 Abraham Lincoln a Runs for Illinois seat in US senate in 1858 b Argues that Taney s ruling endangers the nations security and stability by opening the way for expansion of slavery c Lincoln is NOT an abolitionist but NOT an expansionist d First inagural address 1 He discusses the issue of slavery ii Says that the union is undissolvable therefore secession is not possible iii Also that he would hold the property of the government such as Fort Sumter iv Strongly emphasizes that we should not be enemies that we should befriends Though passion over a heated issue like slavery may have broken bonds the bond and affection must not be completely broken 37 Contraband ofwar a May 1861 b Three enslaved men working at confederate camp escape to the union lines in Virginia union general Butler declares them quotcontraband of war and refuses to return them to the confederate officials i Contraband resources used by enemy in war ii Treats them as subjects iii They are now allowed to retain the slaves 38 Four loyal border states a Key for union civil war policy b DELAWARE MARYLAND KENTUCKY MISSOURI c They are slave states but they do not support the secession movement and therefore remain loyal to the union in the civil war 39 Confiscation acts a August 1861 First Confiscation Act i Granted freedom to enslaved people who had been used as laborers by the confederacy on the grounds that they were subject to quotseizurequot like other goods used by the enemy b March 1862 Second Confiscation Act i Forbade the return of enslaved people who entered union lines even if they were owned by masters who remained loyal to the union 40 Emancipation proclamation a September 1862 preliminary proclamation i Gives CSA confederate states ofAmerica 100 days to return to the union and preserve slavery ii Lincoln remains uncertain about ending slavery and establishing black citizenship within the United States b January 1 1863 Emancipation Proclamation goes into effect i Does not automatically free enslaved people ii People will become free when union gains control of any area iii Excluded enslaved people in the loyal border states MISSOURI KENTUCKY DELAWARE MARYLAND iv Excluded areas already under union control basically excluded over 800000 enslaved people out ofa total population of4 million c Symbolic importance i For enslaved and for white black northerners ii They see war increasingly as a moral humanitarian mission iii A war with a political mission of saving the union 41 13th 14th 15th amendments to the constitution a 13th amendment December 18 1865 officially abolished slavery b 14th amendment Iuly 9 1968 projected citizenship to recently freed slaves c 15th amendment February 3 1870 prohibits any state from denying someone the right to vote based on quotrace color or previous condition of servitude
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