Lecture 5 | Psych 221 | End of Ch 3
Lecture 5 | Psych 221 | End of Ch 3 PSYCH 221
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriella Morales on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 221 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Nicholas Pearson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Chapter 3 Social Cognition Tuesday January 26 2016 227 PM Practical Advice 0 All things being equal 0 Once people think you39re going to succeed you are more likely to succeed 0 Once people think you39re going to fail you are most likely to fail Do not allow yourself to be quotpigeonholedquot Set high but not unreasonable public expectations of your performance How to avoid the SelfFulfillng prophecy Act counter to your expectation or sterotype and see what happens 0 What about gender 0 Elementary School 0 Girls outperform boys in all subjects reading writing math etc 0 Middle school 0 Girls start to fall behind 0 High school 0 Boys surpass girls on standardized tests including SAT 0 College 0 Men score higher than females on GRE39s Teachers 0 Mention boys more often than girls as their most gifted students 0 Parents 0 On av report that their sons are more gifted vs the daughter Adolescents Boys believe they have higher academic ability to do so Other Kinds of Automatic Thinking Judgements and decision making in everyday life 0 We often rely on automatic thinking and quotmental shortcutsquot when making decisions De nition Heuristics 0 Availability heuristic Representativeness Heuristic Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic Schemas vs Heuristics Schemas Mental models of some aspect of the social world nish Availability Heuristic People base judgement on the ease with which they can bring something to mind Often quite useful but can lead to Errors Schwarz et al 1991 0 One group asked to think of 6 times when they were assertive 0 Another group asked to think of 12 times when they are nish 0 Which is more likely 0 Killed by accident or stroke 0 Twice as likely to die by a stroke Representativeness Heuristic Mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case Often quite useful Can lead to erros Ignoring base rate info Probability theory the conjuction of two events cant be more likely than etherevent Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic 0 Mental shortcut that involves using a numeric value as a starting point and then adjusting one39s answer away from this anchor Useful in anchor value is valid 0 Errors if anchor value is invalid Controlled Thinking Conscious intentional voluntasy and effortful A way of corrrcting automatic through oprocess Automatic beliving gt controlled un believing 0 Not always bene cial o Racial pro ling 0 Police target and stop pedestrians airline passangers and motorists on their basis of their race 0 lconic processing and thought suppression o Desire to avoid thinking about something 0 Monitoring Process Search for evidence of unwanted thought 0 Controlled thinking Distract self by nding something else to think about 0 Sucessful thought surpression monitoring process and controlled thinking Summary of social sognition People often motivated to see the world accuraetly Humans are the best thinkers on the planet but we can make mistakes Automatic vs Controlled thinking A good way for the mind to work Either kind of thinking can be awed Can Human Thinking Be Improved Reconsider automatic assumptions Condering the opposite Teaching reasoning skills o Nisbett Fong Lehman and Cheng 1987 End of ch 3
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