Lecture 6 | Ch 4 | Psych 221
Lecture 6 | Ch 4 | Psych 221 PSYCH 221
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabriella Morales on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 221 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Nicholas Pearson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Our Endless Fascination w Other People 128 Continuation of Social Cognition Approach 0 Assumption is that people are trying to be accurate in understanding other people Nonverbal Behavior 0 One of the first things we notice 0 Ex 6 main emotions Anger fear disgust surprise happy sad 0 Body language 1 Sounds 2 Closeness 3 Body contact 4 Eye movement 5 Hand movement 6 Head movement 7 Posture First impressions 1 First impressions formed in one tenth of a second 2 Thinslicing 1 Ambady amp Rosenthal 1992 Harold Kelly s Covariation Model 0 Look at the characteristics of a particular behavior at a particular time 0 Compare it with what you know about previous examples 0 You can make attributions to either the actor internal or the situation external 0 3 pieces of information that you need 0 How does the actor s behavior toward a stimulus compare to other people s behavior toward that stimulus 0 How does the actor s behavior toward a stimulus compare to his or her behavior toward other stimulus 0 Is the actor s behavior always the same toward that stimulus Implicit Personality Theories 0 Another type of schema 0 Fill in the blanks by grouping personality traits together From acts to dispositions 0 We want to know what s inside other people 0 feelings motives dispositions How do we figure this out Attribution Theory The all important quotWhyquot Question 0 How do we explain the causes of other people s behavior 0 Why is it important to do so Attributions to internal versus external factors Kelley s Attribution Theory 0 Consensus Information To what extent do other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus 1 Why did Joe kick Fido 1 Do other people kick Fido dog 1 Yesmaybe it s not Joe s fault Distinctiveness Information To what extent does the actor behave the same way toward other stimuli 0 Consistencv Inform Does the actor behave in the same way toward that stimulus at different times and in different situations Internal vs External Attributions 0 Internal 0 Low Consensus no one else kicks Fido 0 Low Distinctiveness Joe kicks all dogs not including Fido Hi h Consistency Joe always kicks Fido 0 External 0 Hi h Consensus Everyone kicks Fido 0 igh Distinctiveness Joe kicks only Fido 0 igh Consistency Joe always kicks Fido 0 What if Consistency is Low 0 Unique occurrence is difficult to classify 0 External Attribution often made to the particular circumstances 0 Situational attribution Correspondent Inference Theory 0 One would think that logically there must be some necessary precursors before internal dispositional inferences can be made 0 Free choice 0 No social desirability A Test of Correspondent Inference Theory Jones and Harris 1967 0 People given essays to read that had been written by another student 0 Essay was anti or proCastro 0 People told author either had choice or nochoice on which position to take 0 Asked to guess author s true attitude toward Castro Results of Jones amp Harris 1967 Guesses about Author s Attitude Correspondence Bias 0 People demonstrate a clear m to perceive a correspondence between behavior and attitudes 0 We expect that one s values attitudes beliefs and opinions will determine behavior 0 quotCausal misattributionquot Using Mental Shortcuts to Make Attributions The Fundamental Attribution Error FAE Tendency to overestimate dispositions personality as causes of behavior and underestimate situational in uences 0 At heart people are personality theorists at least in the West Research on Personality Traits How well do they predict behavior 0 Personality Trait 0 An internal state or disposition that produces consistent behavior in different situations and is stable over time 0 People View each other in terms of personality traits especially these five Extroversion 0 Agreeableness 0 Conscientiousness 0 Emotional Stability 0 Creativity Openness Traits do not predict behavior as much as we think Mischel 1968 cheating on a spelling test 0 Metaanalysis correlation lt 30 0 Honest in one situation but not in another 0 Hartshorne amp May 1929 help sick kids in hospital but not again later 0 Average correlation 23 0 Helped in one situation but not in another Cultural differences in FAE 0 Both Westerners and East Asians 0 View behavior in terms of dispositions i e personality traits 0 Show the correspondence bias the tendency to infer that people s behavior re ects their dispositions But East Asians are more likely to take into account the situation as well Morris amp Peng 1994 EX Picture of fish in green water 0 Westerners look for the most immediate attribution and focus in on that 3 fish 0 East Asians look at picture in a more holistic way EX Orange and blue fish 0 West orange fish is being attached 0 East 0 Westerners Personality psychologists East Asians 0 Personality amp social psychologists These are generalizations much within group variability