History 202 Study Guide WEEK 1
History 202 Study Guide WEEK 1 History 202
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by kiara campbell on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 202 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by DR. ROWLAND in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see American History to 1877 in History at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
History 202 Study Guide Week 1 Professor: Dr. Rowland Section: 003 Topic 1 I………RECONSTURCTION OF THE NEW SOUTH 1. Significance of the Civil War a. Uniqueness- The durable Republic has only had 1 civil war unlike France who has had many. b. The Survival of the Republican form of government- The Republic is a representative form of government based on popular consent. i. Everyone else had a monarchy (besides the English) and laughed at America for having a Republican government. c. Turning point/Watershed in U.S History- The Civil War caused huge changes. i. Before War: South was very Agrarian and there was slavery ii. After War: Cities are being built and now slavery is abolished d. Forging an American Identity- Before the war people would not identify as American, that would come after identifying with their State. Now primary identification is American. e. The Status of Slavery Has been Altered- Former slaves are now “Freemen” so what does this mean? Impact of the Civil War 1. THE HUMAN FACTOR OF THE CIVIL WAR Highest death rate in our history. Psychologically/psychologically impacted families Disease was the greatest killer. The led bullets of the time shattered bones so amputation was huge. Property was destroyed 2. DESTROYED DOCTRINE OF SECESSION The south thought they could volunteer out of the union where the North believed the Union to be binding and permanent. (States rights VS Authority of Central Government) This idea was destroyed by the end of the war 3. African Americans and Their New Freedom After the war Blacks were emancipated and slavery was abolished. There’s a huge struggle for full and equal rights The Blacks face political, social and economic challenges because basically they went from slaves to freemen overnight. 4. TRIUMPH OF NOTHERN ECONOMIC VISION The movement towards an industrial society took of Before the war, the South was very agricultural and un-industrial where cotton was the engine of their economy. Free labor struggles begin and the question is do wage laborers have rights now 5. HOW TO RECONSTURCT THE SOUTH Victorious North: Biggest challenge is figuring out how to re- admit South back into Union, how fast, and how to punish them for treason? Defeated South: Now that slavery is gone, how do we reestablish a social/racial order that would be accepted without slavery? Freedmen: What does freedom mean for us? II……….RECONSTRUCTION OF THE NEW SOUTH 1. Presidential Reconstruction (1865-1868) Lincoln’s Conciliatory (Forgiving) Plan: When 10% of the voting population takes an oath of allegiance, they can be admitted back into the Union. Pardon Policy- Would only bar the highest ranking civilian/military leadership -The Radical Republican party thought Lincoln’s plan was too lenient and they wanted a much harsher policy. -The Radical Republicans were very pleased Andrew Johnson became president because they think he’s going to establish a harsher policy. -They thought because Johnson grew up as a poor white Southerner he’d be on their side. However, Johnson: Resented the Southern Plantation aristocracy. Had a strong dislike for Plantation owners but had 0 compassion or interest in slaves. Believed blacks were not equals and inferior. Johnson’s Reconstruction: Creates a gentle and superficial plan that was more lenient than Lincoln’s plan. Extremely liberal Pardon Policy- Restores southern leaders to power and acknowledges a just enough percent of loyalty oaths to accept southern states back into Union. Believes loss of slavery is punishment enough. Black Codes: o Restricted any freedom that the freedmen were entitled to. o In some places slaves were compelled to return to work on their former plantations. o The freedmen were paid as little as possible and they had to accept what was paid to them. o Some overseers/masters could whip the freedmen if they stood up for themselves in any way Congress Showdown with Johnson 1. Congress would override many vetoes that Johnson signed. At this time the Radical Republicans have control in congress. 2. Tenure of Office Act (1867): This act was thought of as possibly unconstitutional It prohibited President from dismissing any cabinet officer without Congress approval. i. A member of the Cabinet (Stanton) was a radical and Johnson tried to get rid of him 3. Congress impeached Johnson who survived by 1 vote After impeachment Johnson loses all power and influence All vetoes he made were immediately overturned by Congress 2. The Congressional (Radical) Reconstruction (1868- 1873) A. Radical Republican Agenda 1. Political a. Limit White Southern vote and increase their power with the freedmen vote 2. Punishment a. Radicals want to punish the South for treason and for causing the war. b. “Waving the bloody shirt” was an expression used to remind which party was the party of loyalty/Union (Radical Republicans) and which was the party of treason (Southern Democrats). 3. Fundamentally want to Restructure Socio-Political Order a. Abolished the Black Codes b. Gave constitutional guarantees for freedmen such as citizenship and the ability to vote
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