HIst 110A notes
HIst 110A notes History 110A
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in World Civilization to 16th Century
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Veronica Barragan on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 110A at California State University - Fullerton taught by Stefan Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 331 views. For similar materials see World Civilization to 16th Century in History at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Power in Egypt had declined for a number of reasons New people arrived in Anatolia, they were known as the Hittites A. Hittites a. They were from a tribe known as Indo-Europeans. b. Indo-Europeans had a huge impact on many of the most important languages, such as English. c. Thousands of years ago the Indo Europeans tribe broke up and scattered in every direction. d. They went all over Europe, Middle East, and India e. Their languages began to disperse and developed into unique languages f. Since they trace back to the same original language, languages were very similar g. Almost every single language in Europe today is Indo-European h. Romans, Greeks, and Persians all have Indo-European languages. B. Willian Jones (1786AD) a. Was stationed in India and realized the language had much in common with English, as well as Greek and Latin. C. Aryans =>India/Harappa a. They split from the Indo-European tribe and eventually ended up in India , which is home for one of the oldest civilizations (3 major civilization) b. Civilizations were named after major cities c. Harappans were very smart, they ran water and sewer systems d. They had a system of writing that has yet to be deciphered e. Harappans had experienced a number of problems before the arrival of the Aryans, such as cold weather, which led to a decline in the growth of crops as well as having a limited amount of resources, which led to warfare. f. So, when the Aryans arrived they were able to destroy the Harappa civilization and replace it with nothing. g. India was sent to a long dark age. i. Dark Ages characteristics 1. Population plummets, people were either killed or fled. 2. People would often forget how to read and write. D. Mycenaeans => Greece /Minoans a. They were the first Greeks meaning that they spoke Greek and had a Greek religion b. Came from the North and settled in central and southern Greece c. When they arrived in Greece, there was already a great civilization there d. Minoans were the first civilization to develop in Europe. However, Minoans weren’t Greek and nobody really knows where they came from. e. Minoans taught Mycenaeans the important factors in order to be a civilization f. The Mycenaeans were so thankful that the decided to destroy the Minoans g. Mycenaean Greece was not unified, instead it was politically divided into city-states. h. The biggest of the cities was Mycenae i. Mycenaeans spent most of their time fighting each other. E. Hittites => Anatolia a. Hittites arrived in Anatolia b. When Egypt began to decline Hittites began to head to the near east c. They were part of the reason why Egypt began to decline d. Another reason why they began to decline was internal problems over religion e. The Egyptian priests were becoming t powerful for the pharaoh to control. F. Amenhotep IV/ Akhenaten 1364-1347 a. He wanted to curve the power of the Egyptian Priests, so he created a new religion b. In this religion, there was only one god, sun disk c. At this point, there were no other monotheistic religions d. He even changed his name to Akhenaten, he who worships the sun disk e. The religion did not last very long f. After he dies his successor, King Tut faced major rebellion and was forced to go back to the old religion G. Rameses II a. Leads the list of pharaohs in many categories b. Ruled Egypt for the longest amount of time c. First time two regions were under the same control d. Had the most children (100+) e. Built the most monuments f. His main goal was to restore the power in Egypt specifically from Hittites g. Spent his first year reorganizing Egyptian Army h. During this time the Egyptian Army consisted of 20,000 soldiers (4 units of 5,000 men each) Each unit was named after an Egyptian god i. Most important weapon of war was the chariot ii. Altogether the Egyptians had 3,000 teams of chariots [used chariots to reconquer Near East] i. 1274 the battle of Qadesh was fought i. By far the biggest battle during the Bronze Age ii. Hittites + Allies = 27,000 men Egyptians = 20,000 j. Muwatallis was the Hittite King i. Egyptians are moving North, Hittites already there ii. Muwatallis decides to play a trick on Rameses iii. He decides to play a trick on Rameses iv. He sends two spies into the camp to pretended to be deserters from the Hittite Army v. They give Rameses info about Muwatalli army vi. They say that Qadesh army is nowhere near Qadesh, but still far up North vii. Rameses believes them k. Rameses does not take precautions as they approach Qadesh, assuming Hittites are not there. i. The Hittites attack the Egyptian camp ii. The Egyptians won at Qadesh iii. The first Peace treaty we know about is signed iv. The Hittites and Egyptians agree to divide the Near East v. Rameses marries two Hittites princesses vi. Rameses II was the last great pharaoh of Ancient Egypt l. Around 1250 both the stories of Moses and Exodus took place Near East was one of the first 8 civilizations 12 century/1100’s BC Bronze Age Mycenae Pylos Cyprus Hittites Rameses II 1186-1154BC Ugarit 1179 Assyria The century of the great catastrophe (fall of the Bronze Age world) During the Bronze Age there was 8 civilizations Civilizations are usually weakened internally first before suffering a devastating attack from the outside. If a civilization is strong and unified it can survive an attack, if not chances are they will lose A. Causes for the weakening of Civilizations internally a. Bad leadership(because of hereditary monarchies) i. All civilizations had a king or pharaoh ii. They were not chosen by ability, but by relationship to previous king iii. The problem with a hereditary monarchy is that you never really know what you are going to get. iv. If a king had absolute power and did not know what he was doing it could lead to disaster. b. Dramatic rise in crime and rebellions against the state. c. Outright civil wars i. Dramatic drop in populations and break down in economy ii. When the economy breaks down it means less tax dollars for gov, which means the gov, is less and less able to function d. Environmental problems also led to the weakening i. Drought which can lead to not being able to grow the necessary food ii. Manmade environmental problems 1. Exhaustion of the soil 2. Deforestation, which could lead to flooding. B. Civilized People a. Civilizations would fall with a combination of these internal problems along with attacks, usually by pastoralists. b. civilized people were far more numerous, which means civilizations had bigger armies c. civilized were more organized, had a government, and usually more advanced technologically (better weapons) d. civilized people could build better fortifications such as walls e. It was easier for them to put more chariots on the ground. C. Pastoralist people a. Pastoralists develop new and improved technologies and ideas n how to use these techniques in battle, which allows pastoralists tribes for the first time ever to overcome the chariot. b. New more lighter people i. Army can move faster c. Invent new weapon called the javelin i. Not to be confused with a spear. ii. Shorter than a spear and is a weapon you throw. d. New ideas on how to use the javelin in battle i. Run on to the battle field, move as quickly as possible so that they won’t be easy targets, and then throw their javelins while they are still running. 1. They would hit either horses or men, either way slowing down the chariot and then going to them and finishing them off 2. Men on chariots usually did not wear any armor. e. Somehow all pastoralists people figure this out at around the same time which leads to the fall of some great civilizations D. Greeks(North West) Mycenaean Period a. They were the first to be attacked by the pastoralist people b. The Mycenaeans were already weakened internally before they were attacked. c. A group of Pastoralist came to Greece an attacked i. Every Mycenaean city was destroyed ii. The Mycenaeans had known an attack was coming iii. In the last days of the Mycenaean period there were frantic efforts to grow stronger and build a better wall and fortresses to block invaders through the ocean. iv. The Mycenaeans survive for a few more years before someone attacks and ends them once and for all. d. The city of Pylos i. Written records from the last days of the city had survived ii. We get some idea of what was happening during the last days of Pylos 1. The king of Pylos knew an attack was coming, but doesn’t say who 2. Frantic preparations to defend the city against the frantic attack. 3. The king has called out the entire army AND navy expecting an attack from both land and sea 4. The king results to human sacrifice in order to win the help of the gods a. Human sacrifice was almost unknown in Greece at the time 5. The preparations did not work and Pylos was destroyed and would never recover. iii. Greece plunges into a long dark age. e. The island of Cyprus i. The people of Cyprus knew an attack was coming ii. In one city in Cyprus, the people buried all their valuables and then fled iii. Someone then came and destroyed Cyprus and the valuables were never found. E. Hittite Empire a. They were suffering the same problems as the Greeks b. They are ten attacked by tribes and their chariots are destroyed. c. Every Hittite city is destroyed i. They were destroyed so thoroughly that the very memory of the Hittites was destroyed. ii. Plunges into a long dark age F. Near East a. Someone came in and destroyed every city in the Near East and the Near East was plunged into a long dark age. b. Ugarit i. We can date its destruction, 1179 ii. Written records from the last days of the city survived iii. King Ugarit sends a letter to neighbor for military aid. G. Egypt a. Last ones to be attacked b. Rameses III (1186-1154BC) i. Egypt was attacked four separate times by barbaric tribes. c. They were fortunate because theyknew exactly what the barbarians were going to do, so they abandoned their chariots. d. They won the barbaric tribes, but were so weakened by the attacks that they would never really recover H. China, Kush, and Mesopotamia survive bronze Age I. Assyrians survived attacks and grew powerful kingdom
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