ANS 042 Week 4 Lecture
ANS 042 Week 4 Lecture ANS 042
Popular in Introductory Companion Animal Biology
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aiden Leong on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANS 042 at University of California - Davis taught by Dr. Anita Oberbaur in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see Introductory Companion Animal Biology in Animal Science and Zoology at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Feb 1 Pocket Pet and Avian I. Pocket Pet a. Chinchilla i. Look at physical attributes to see what their purpose is ii. Big ears hearing is food b. Gerbil i. Burrows ii. Not good pets technically, not legal in California iii. Originally from Mongolia 1. Evolved in the desert, which translates into water conservation 2. Don’t urinate a lot lower odor 3. Monogamous, which means in a natural situation they tend to pair for life a. Contrasts with domestication, which favors random breeding b. Humans insert themselves into animal relations, thus will breed outside their “monogamous” relation 4. Desert has very unusual weather forms a good tolerance for weather 5. Worry that gerbils can be a problem for overrunning the population since they will work well in California 6. Careful with tail, can cause tail slip skin on tail will come off when handled incorrectly c. Rabbit i. NOT A RODENT 1. has qualities similar to rodents though ii. look at anatomy and skeletal structure to indicate differents iii. Lagamorph 1. Continuously growing incisors, like rodents iv. Originally from Western Europe 1. From a species of common ancestor 2. Important geological information due to temperature a. Domesticated rabbit cannot tolerate temperatures over 85 degrees Farenheit, especially those that are obese b. Needs to be temperature control v. Live in communities 1. Good to be paired when put into a home 2. They ARE territorial though vi. Believed to be domesticated in Rome 1. Used for hunting 2. Cray item 3. Skeletal structure evidence a. Rabbit vs. Cat i. Rabbit will use speed to get away ii. Front leg used to help rabbit not tip forward, also helps with digging iii. Hind leg used for propulsion in speed and stride length iv. Easier to control and better stability due to the vast amount of area the hind leg uses v. Rabbit – 8% weight is skeleton 1. Can go faster 2. But since it’s so lightweight, it must be handled carefully 3. Can hyperextend their spine if they push off their hind legs without a support vi. Cat – 13% weight is skeleton vii. Do not handle via ears 1. Ears are important for hearing and also for controlling heat in body temperature viii. 3 most prevalent species in shelters d. Ferret i. Carnivore pocket pet ii. NOT LEGAL IN CALIFORNIA iii. Prone to cancer 1. Banned in 1980’s 2. Worried due to the fact that they are carnivorous, especially favoring in avian meat a. Will affect the avian population in the wild 3. Long body can make ferret able to easily escape and crawl into tight spaces 4. Anal glands that react when in panic situation iv. Domesticated from weasel/pole cat 1. Which is related to the skunk family 2. 2,000 years ago domesticated in Greece a. Believed to be used for rodent control II. Avian/Bird a. The nearest living animal to a bird is a crocodile b. Oldest bird evidence i. Archaeopteryx 1. Shows quality of both reptile and avian characteristics 2. Reptile: a. Teeth, long tail, hand with claws 3. Avian: a. Feathers, furula (paired wish bone), feet with opposable digits c. Adaptation for flight i. Biomechanics 1. Decrease drag streamline 2. Lift force needed to keep in air 3. Thrust power to maintain lift & counteract drag ii. Thrust 1. The flap of the wings that enable flight iii. Wing loading 1. = (Body weight) / (surface area of wing) a. More weight means more power needed to lift up, thus bigger wing b. More surface area of wing means more muscle needed, thus more body weight 2. Influences biomechanics 3. Example: Swan a. 36 pound mass of flapping power is the biggest iv. In order to fly 1. Needs 50% - 75% more energy compared to land animal to move 2. Needs more oxygen to get more energy 3. Flapping of wings help the diaphragm breathe 4. Anatomical requirements of flight a. General lightening of body weight i. Thin skin little fat under skin ii. Skeleton is incredibly modified 1. Fewer bones overall a. Especially in spine, skull, and limbs b. Also has fused bones 2. Thinner bones as well 3. Bones are hollow but strutted, which means it’s a crisscross pattern a. Some bones are pneumatic, which means filled with air that allows invasion of air sacs iii. Does not have a bladder decreased weight 1. They excrete more of a paste as a combination of excrement and urine iv. Lay eggs do not need to carry child 1. Gonads regress when not reproducing v. No teeth or lips 1. Heavily enforced jaw and muscle if you have teeth adds on body weight 2. BUT birds don’t have that vi. Committed forelimb to flying 1. Strengthen the wings d. Up to 9,000 variations i. Although very homogeneous in characteristics ii. Mammals are very different in contrast Discussion I. Form and Function a. Form = the animal’s makeup b. Function = motion permissible due to the form II. Movement a. Constant balance of propulsion and equilibrium b. Many things affect how an animal moves i. Shape/ skeletal structure ii. Muscle make up: size and type iii. Nasal and lung capacity III. Example: Herding dogs a. Shoulders well laid back b. 90 degrees angle between shoulder and humerus c. Places elbows below center of gravity good support d. Flexible forequarters for quick turns e. Agility f. Balance IV. Example: Sighthounds a. Dogs that hunt by sight and speed: greyhound, afghan hound, deerhound, etc b. Speed c. Flexible back d. Long legs e. Shoulders not as laid back deep chest V. Gait a. Regularly repeated manner of moving the feet b. Physical structure affects gait selection c. Minimize energy expenditure Feb. 3 Avian Form and Function, Zoonotics – Viral and Bacterial I. Avian Form and Function a. Aerodynamic i. Minimize the drag, lifting of the wings b. Body modifications i. General anatomical requirements for flight 1. Lightening of body weight a. Hollow skeleton b. Thin skin c. Fewer bones d. Less fat e. No bladder 2. Commitment forelimb to flight 3. Specialization of pectoral muscles a. Muscles of the bird can account up to 50%+ of the body weight 4. Modified sternum/keel a. The muscles attached can move in a flapping movement b. If not modified muscle would rip off the bone 5. Accentuated vision and balance a. One way to think about this situation is the steering wheel and controlled mechanisms in car i. Now look at a cockpit in a plane, it’s much more complicated b. Through this accentuation it allows the bird to be able to fly in balance c. Ostrich example: their eye is the biggest in the terrestrial mammals i. Birds with 5 cones in their eyes, bigger proportion of visual detection than human’s ii. That means a bigger proportion in the brain to synthesize the image 6. Enhanced respiratory system a. Birds need a lot more ocygen and need more energy compared to a mammal b. In order to achieve that amount is through an enhanced system c. Respiratory tract i. Very efficient ii. When they need oxygen, the air comes into the lung which need to go into the blood from the blood you need to get metabolic waste from the body Carbon dioxide need to go out the lungs to be secreted in order to get rid of that anaerobic iii. BIRDS respiratory system 1. Oxygen exchange from the air on both inhalation and exhalation to do this birds have rigid lungs, human have compressible lungs that push the air out, where inhalation is getting oxygen and exhalation is getting out the waste BIRDS need to continue to gain air at all times, so air goes into the lungs AND air sacs 2. With get oxygen through their “nostrils” 3. Has a bigger surface area proportion to body 4. Decreased distance between lung tissue and blood vessels a. Makes it easier for oxygen to get extracted into the blood system 5. Hemoglobin is very efficient a. In the blood vessel, it has a great propensity to grab oxygen and hold it b. Allows them to get the ability to get the energy to fly 6. Buoyancy levels must remain constant a. Rigid lungs and constant air flow will allow it to have a uniform position in the air 7. EXAMPLE: canary in mines, the canary would indicate if the area has a low amount of oxygen 7. Bird’s center of gravity a. More forward in the hip b. Birds sit and the center of gravity will help it not fall over 8. Circulation of blood is very well a. Never really stops and thus won’t get frostbite in the snow 9. Neck and beak a. Neck has 25 vertebrae so it’s easier to pick up items or preen itself c. Bird immune system i. Birds usually hide illness so flock doesn’t kick them out of the group ii. If a bird is shown to be sick it is REALLY REALLY SICK go to immediate veterinary care II. Zoonotics a. Diseases that are specifically transferred from companion animals or general animals that pose a health hazard to humans i. Animals health and wellbeing is important to the animal BUT also for the owner ii. Approximately 30 infectious agents in both dogs and cats that can be transferred to humans 1. We can even give the common cold to our pets iii. Avian flu and Zika virus – diseases examples from general animals b. Transmission i. Contact with animal via 1. Skin 2. Excrements 3. Respiratory secretions (sneezes, coughs) 4. Animal’s environment a. Henta virus b. Rodent’s excrement can go into the air you are in the area and inhale such infectious virals 5. Bites 6. Scratches 7. Vector a. Mosquitos 8. Tissue transplant a. Becoming more recognized b. EXAMPLE: A person had a pet hamster that was sick and when the owner died, their organs were given to people who need them. Those people got sick c. Categorize zoonotics by agents of transmission i. Viral 1. Which are basically diseases caused by viruses that are replicated in the host’s body 2. Rabies a. In all countries (except for Antarctica) b. Enzootic natural wild population is a reservoir for that zoonotic i. North America is enzootic to rabies c. 2014, 200 cases of rabies i. 160 were from bats 1. Third highest is YOLO COUNTY ii. Bacterial 1. Which are caused by bacteria that are free living cells that can survive outside the host 2. Usually treated by antibiotics iii. Fungal 1. Yeast or mold that are specialized organisms iv. Parasitic 1. Tapeworms, protozoa, mice v. Rickettsial 1. Both viral and bacterial limes disease, spotted fever, usually by ticks d. Can cause a particular threat i. Threat is greatest in the very young and the very old humans 1. That’s because the immune system is not fully developed in young animals and humans 2. The immune system start to fail when you get older ii. Immunocompromised 1. Health condition that inhibits immune system 2. When you get an organ transplant, you get medication to help your body not reject the organ, but your immune system is compromised through that Feb 5 Guest Lecturer – Reptiles Dr. DeNardo Arizona State University I. Reptiles a. History and the snake i. Although reptiles are in a bad stigma and we are trying to get rid of that, there are venomous snakes that can harm humans ii. Pythons can consume a full adult iii. Crocodiles can also consume human limbs and meat b. Reptile Diversity – all have scales i. Snake and lizards ii. Turtle and tortoises 1. Don’t know what their closest living relative is 2. We do know they are reptiles though iii. Crocodilian 1. Very similar to birds compared to other reptile iv. Birds are related but they are not reptiles 1. They have too many different characteristics c. Habitat diversity i. Locations they can live in – all but the poles 1. Californian desserts 2. Rain forests d. Reptiles and Temperature i. Thermoregulation – regulating body temperature 1. What: a. How to distinguish fish, amphibians, & reptiles between mammals & birds i. Cold-blooded vs. warm-blooded ii. Experiment in England where two scientists measured body temperature of a variety of animals and realized that a specific group has a higher temperature than other groups 1. But they did this in a cold, dank room iii. Homeotherm vs. poikiliotherm 1. Homeotherm that has a constant stable temperature over time 2. Poikiliotherm that does not have a stable temperature over time iv. Endotherm vs. ectotherm 1. Endotherm produce own heat 2. Ectotherm does not produce their own heat and need to get heat in the surrounding environment 2. How: a. How we best describe thermoregulation in active reptile i. Warm-blooded homeothermic ectotherms b. Morning i. Behavior: pressed against dark rock, perpendicular to sun 1. Blood will go to the back where the heat is hitting then circulate throughout the body ii. Physiology: dark color, increased heart rate, increase dorsal peripheral blood flow c. Moderate Mid-day i. Behavior: off rock, limbs extended, open mouth filtered sun, facing sun ii. Physiology: light color, increase evaporative water loss, decrease dorsal blood flow d. Hot afternoon i. Behavior: escape into the burrow 3. Why: a. To survive i. We have a maximum and minimum temperature needed to maintain or else we will die b. To maximize performance i. If you have a 100 degree F temperature you can’t perform well, not even run or eat ii. Experiment: put reptile in incubator and control the temperature, then measure how fast they can run in that temperature iii. Need to maximize performance since an animal can be hunted and killed if not 4. Let reptiles have a choice in temperature with thermogradient e. Domestication i. NOT DOMESTICATED 1. Too much variety that needs different accommodations 2. They are not “domesticated” to the tanks they live in
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