Chapter 12 Notes (Week 3)
Chapter 12 Notes (Week 3) BIOL 101
Cal State Fullerton
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Xyvil Dapal on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
CH. TWELVE NOTES 1 CHAPTER 12 NOTES 12.1 WHAT MAKES A PLANT? • PLANT: a multicellular eukaryote that produces its own food by carrying out photosynthesis, using energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water to sugar – and has an embryo that develops within the protected environment of the female parent. • Almost exclusively on land • Vary in size (0.04 inches – 380 feet) • Can’t live off of photosynthesis alone; needs nitrogen to build protein, phosphorus to make ATP, salts for concentration gradients • ROOTS: the part of a plant below the ground; obtain substances from the soil • SHOOT: consists of a stem and leaves (stem: the structure that supports the main photosynthetic organ of plant: leaves) • Some grow TOWARDS light • Some evolved to protect themselves from predators (i.e. thorns) • NON-VASCULAR: had no tube-like vessels to transport water and nutrients 12.2 COLONIZING LAND BRINGS NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND NEW CHALLENGES. • Green algae – ancestors • Land plants appeared 472 mil yrs ago • Were small, no leaves, roots, flowers 12.3 MOSSES AND OTHER NON-VASCULAR PLANT LACK VESSELS FOR TRANSPORTING NUTRIENTS AND WATER. • Diffusion limited early plants • THREE GROUPS OF PLANTS: 1. Liverworts 2. Hornworts 3. Mosses • BRYOPHYTES: lack vascular tissues and move water and dissolved nutrients by diffusion • Must live always moist places • Had to develop method of reproduction that protects plant embryo from drying out • All plants exhibit “the alternation of generations” CH. TWELVE NOTES 2 • GAMETOPHYTE: aka, haploid; the structure in land plants and some algae that produces gametes; the haploid stage of plants and some algae, which may be either be male (producing sperm) or female (producing eggs) • SPOROPHYTE: aka, diploid; the multicellular diploid structure in non-vascular plants, some vascular plants, and some algae that produces asexual spores, the diploid life stage in organisms exhibiting the alternation of generations • SPORES: single cells, containing DNA, RNA and proteins 12.4 THE EVOLUTION OF VASCULAR TISSUE MADE LARGE PLANTS POSSIBLE. • VASCULAR PLANTS: plants that transport water and dissolved nutrients by means of vascular tissues, a system of tubes that extends from the roots through the stem and into the leaves • Vasc. Plants grow taller than non-vasc. Plants • SPORANGIA: in many ferns, the structures on the underside of the leaves in which the spores are produced • PROTHALLUS: the free-living haploid life stage of a fern; produces haploid gametes 12.5 WHAT IS A SEED? • SEED: an embryonic plant with its protective coating o Contain both a multicellular embryo and a store of nutrients, most starch • ENDOSPERM: tissue of a mature seed that stores certain carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids that fuel the germination, growth, and development of the embryo and young seedling • TWO MODERN GROUPS OF SEED-PRODUCING PLANTS o GYMNOSPERMS: pines, firs and redwoods o ANGIOSPERMS: all flowering plants and trees • POLLEN GRAINS: a structure that contains the male gametophyte if a seed plant • OVULES: the structure within the ovary of flowering plants that gives rise to egg cells • If pollen grain lands on ovule, produces tube to go into ovule • Seeds distributed by water, wind, animals 12.6 WITH THE EVOLUTION OF THE SEED, GYMNOSPERMS BECAME THE DOMINANT PLANTS ON EARTH. • FOUR GROUPS OF GYMNOSPERMS o Conifers o Cycads o Gnetophytes CH. TWELVE NOTES 3 o Ginkgo • POLLINATION: getting the pollen to the vicinity of the ovule • Depend on wing to carry pollen 12.7 CONIFERS INCLUDE THE TALLENT AND LONGEST-LIVING TREES. • Cone bearing trees – the conifers – are tallest and oldest trees • Woody plants are strong and resistant to attack by herbivores • Bark covers tree trunk and branches • Bark is dead tissue that can be shed without damage to the tree • Trees can defend themselves 12.8 ANGIOSPERMS ARE THE DOMINANT PLANTS TODAY • Vast majority of plants on earth are flowering plants in angiosperm group • FLOWERS: the part of the angiosperm that contains the reproductive structures; consists of a supporting stem with modified leaves (petals and sepals) and usually contains both male and female reproductive structures • STAMEN: male structure of a flower • ANTHER: produces the pollen in stamen • FILAMENT: supporting stalk of stamen • CARPEL: the female reproductive structure • OVARY: at the base of the carpel; which contains one or more ovules in which eggs develop • STYLE: stalk of the carpel; extends from the ovary • STIGMA: sticky tip of the carpel • Pollination in angiosperms is transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to the female o Sometimes occurs in same flower, sometimes w/ different flower o Pollen grain sticks to the stigma 12.9 A FLOWER IS NOTHING WITHOUT A POLLINATOR. • Fertilization occurs when the male gamete merges w/ the female gamete • Some angiosperms release tremendous amounts of pollen into the wind • Most angiosperms rely on animals to do the pollinating o TRICKERY: the plant deceives some animals into carrying its pollen from one plant to another CH. TWELVE NOTES 4 o BRIBERY: the plant bribes some animals to carry its pollen from one plant to another; offers something of value to the animal (i.e. nectar) 12.10 ANGIOSPERMS IMPROVE SEEDS WITH DOUBLE FERTILIZATION. • Fertilization begins when a pollen grain lands of stigma of flower • DOUBLE FERTILIZATION: two perms are released by a pollen grain, and one fuses with an eff to form a zygote, while the other fuses with two nuclei to form a triploid endosperm • Ensures that a plant doesn’t invest energy in forming endosperm for an ovule that has not been fertilized 12.13 FUNGI ARE CLOSER TO ANIMALS THAN THEY ARE TO PLANTS. • Fungi most likely arose from unicellular, flagellated, aquatic protest more than 500 mil yrs ago • Common types of fungi: o Yeasts (the only single-celled fungi) o Mushrooms o Molds • HYPHAE: long strings of cells that make up the mycelium of multicellular fungus o Causes athlete’s foot • Most fungi are multicelleluar 12.14 FUNGI HAVE SOME STRUCTURES IN COMMON, BUT EXPLOIT AN ENORMOUS DIVERSITY OF HABITATS. • MYCELIUM: a mass of interconnecting hyphae that make up the structure of a multicellular fungus • Mushroom – temporary “fruiting body” • SEXUAL AND ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION OF FUNGI 1. Underground, distinct haploid hyphal cells join together 2. Dikaryotic mycelium grow and spread 3. Mushroom MAY form 4. Meiosis – produce numbers of spores 5. Spores can grow, repeating the cycle • DECOMPOSERS: organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and detritivores that break down and feed on once living organisms • Fungi can thrive in poorly ventilated spaces in buildings (mold); can cause health problems
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