Lecture 3 History 1312
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fernanda Navarro on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1312 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Kristen Burton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see U.S HIstory since 1865 in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Lecture 3 Jan 28, 2016 The Rise of Jim Crow 1) Life in the postwar South a) Reconstruction and daily life i) Slaves did not have access to education, as Whites knew that if they could think for themselves, the slaves would begin to act and think for themselves ii) After the war, former slaves had to look to their own communities in order to learn to read and write iii) The Whites wanted the former status quo, slavery, since the south was so prosperous before the war iv) Former slaves had no capitol when freed, this led to sharecropping b) Sharecropping i) Someone signs a contract through an employer by which they obtain land and tools. They pay their employers a part of their crop and the rest is theirs to sell or keep for themselves. ii) Many times between crops, former slaves would buy things on credit iii) In most cases, they would fall into so much debt that blacks had to give an additional part of their crops to their employers iv) In turn, this pushed many to leave the south if they could c) Military from the north was placed to occupy the south, which had been divided into districts, in order to ensure that the states were enforcing and following the laws d) By the end of 1870, civilian rule was beginning to rise again e) More and more democrats were gaining office in the government, mostly through intimidation 2) The fall of Reconstruction a) Rise of southern “redeemers,” 1870s i) Whites in the north were getting tired of reconstructiom ii) Whites of both north and south were beginning to come together in the agreement that it was time to move on from reconstruction iii) Ulysses Grant would give office by allowing offers to be made, starting corruption in the government iv) 1874: democrats regained control of the House v) 1876 election (1) Rutherford B. Hayes, republican, vs Samuel J. Tilden, democrat vi) In order to end the controversy of who won the election (1) Compromise of 1877 (2) Democrats let Hayes take office but only if he took the military out of the south and put a southerner in his cabinet vii)Republicans win the white house at the cost of reconstruction 3) The South “Reconstructed” a) The knights of the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) 1865 b) Whites were frustrated that they had lost their way of life c) Members of the white population began targeting Blacks in order to win White supremacy again d) Violence and intimidation used by Whites as a pillar to regain their power e) In 1871, 150 Black men were killed in Jackson County, Florida alone f) The Force Acts, 18701871 i) Banned secret organizations from using force to violate laws aimed at equal protection g) While the civil wat did free the slaves, it did not bring protection against exploitation 4) The Judicial Retreat a) United States v. Cruickshank 1876 b) The Colfax Massacre 1873 i) The White League against the Black militia ii) 3 White League members dies while 150 Blacks were murdered iii) The White League was edited under one of the Force Acts, the case then reached the Supreme Court iv) The Supreme Court ruled they did not act to protect Blacks from organizations not from the states 5) Life in the Jim Crow South a) A more “perfect Union?” b) Poll taxes, literacy tests, the “Grandfather Clause” c) “Jim Crow” laws i) Denied Blacks equal access to public places ii) To ensure the Whites could be separated from the Black community d) Brought out a new style of music, the Blues, grief through song i) Roots in field hollers and spiritual sung by slaves
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