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Bio Science 104 Week 2 Notes

by: Shagun Gupta

Bio Science 104 Week 2 Notes 104

Shagun Gupta

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Notes for 2/2/16 and 2/4/16
General Biology
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shagun Gupta on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 104 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
(CONTINUATION OF CHAPTER 1 AND 2)  Organic molecules  Monomer-small molecule A lot of monomers put together create a polymer  Proteins are made of amino acids  Polypeptide becomes protein  Gene-  Enzyme=catalyst  Enzymes makes a chemical reaction happen much faster than it would without the enzyme  Enzyme is a protein CARBOHYDRATES  Simple carbohydrates-monomers(sugars)  Complex carbohydrates-polymers  Glucose-blood sugar-what our body needs for food and what plants need for photosynthesis  Plants store food through starch  Cellulose-make up cell wall in plants  Starch and cellulose-both made up of long chain of glucose but are but are bonded/linked in a different way.  When we eat plants, we are getting cellulose which is indigestible.  LIPIDS  Lipids are nonpolar-don’t have a charge  Lipids are a good barrier to water.  Lipids are a source of energy  Triglycerides are type of lipid also known as fats/oils. These function as food reserves in many organisms.  Cholesterol is also a lipid.  NUCLEIC ACIDS  These are composed of repeating units called nucleotides  DNA/RNA  ATP/ADP: much smaller molecules  We start out with ADP. When any living cells break down a molecule, it’s going up to end up as glucose. Energy is released and you catch it by adding on a phosphate, then it becomes ATP. rd  Lots of energy is stored in the 3 phosphate bond.  DNA –long molecule. It makes up a code of amino acids which makes up a protein.  RNA- single, shorter, smaller molecule. RNA manufactures proteins using the instructions coded on the DNA molecule.  Transcription- where RNA template is made in nucleus.  Translation- The sequence of bases in DNA makes up a gene, which is ultimately translated into the sequence of amino acids in proteins.  Inorganic molecules- The most important ones are H2O, CO2 and O2.  H2O-important because it moves things around  O2- needed to break down glucose and get maximum ATP  CO2-needed for every organism to survive PLANT CELLS  3 things that a plant cell has that animal cell doesn’t: chloroplast, large central vacuole and a cell wall (made of cellulose). Animal cells have very small vacuoles only.  Both types of cells have a cell membrane  Both types of cells have mitochondria  All eukaryotic cells have a nucleus  Organelles- all have different functions and combine to support the cell.  All plant cells have primary cell walls  Some have lignin  The space between cells is called pectin and it’s used in making jelly/jam.  Pectin is the glue holding all the cells together  Chloroplast –absorbs solar energy into chemical energy: Photosynthesis  Aerobic respiration- the process of breaking down glucose to make oxygen  Plants are rigid because they are full of water  Vacuoles are full of water- they are the repository for toxic things- waste.  TURGID-When cell is full of water and plants are rigid  Flaccid-when plants get dehydrated-no water in soil-vacuoles are depleted-plants curl up and bend over DIFFUSION AND OSMOSIS  Diffusion: movement of particles from area of high concentration to area of low concentration No gradient= equilibrium point= this is where diffusion stops  Rate of diffusion is affected by : 1. Size of molecules: smaller and lighter molecules diffuse faster 2. Steepness of gradient: the more steep, the faster the diffusion 3. Temperature: warmer molecules move much faster  Osmosis: movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration.  Solution has 2 parts : Solvent: water Solute: whatever is dissolved in the water. NOTE: Water is ALWAYS trying to move from less concentrated area to more concentrated area  At the end of osmosis, you want it to balance out to 7.5 % CELL DIVISION  This is about: 1. Growth in plants 2. Replacing plant cells CELL CYCLE  Interphase: This is the major part of the cycle. There is no dividing of the cell at this stage. The cell grows here and copy of the DNA is made.  During DNA replication (Interphase), enzyme breaks bonds between DNA molecules. Due to interaction with new enzyme, 2 identical strands are laid down.  Next comes Mitosis and Cytokinesis : Division Happens here and this takes a couple of hours  There are 4 phases of mitosis: 1. Prophase: condensation happens and DNA coils up. This is when DNA molecules become visible. At this point, the DNA is called chromatids. 2. Metaphase: all chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell. Spindle fibers attach to chromosomes and shorten. 3. Anaphase: Chromosomes get broken apart 4. Telophase: DNA is uncoiling, nuclear membranes are being built around cell and cell wall is being created.  The last stage of this process is Cytokinesis. This is the division of the cytoplasm and separates the two identical daughter nuclei into two cells. Cytokinesis begins during the latter part of anaphase and is completed by the end of telophase.  NOTE: Mitosis takes place the same way in animal cells THE PLANT BODY (CHAPTER 3)  Cells--- Tissues --- Organs--- Organ System--- Organism  Stems, leaves and roots make up a plant  All tissues have a specific job to do  Tissue types: 1. Meristems( 2 types) 2. Dermal tissues 3. Vascular tissues( 2 types) 4. Ground tissues  Meristems- 2 flavors Apical meristems: could be tip of stem/tip of root -process of elongation -making more cells -source of primary growth Lateral meristems: made from apical meristems -Cylinder of cells within a stem -secondary growth: as meristem grows, it causes that stem to become thicker -in plants used to make wood  Dermal tissue -protects plant body from external environment -epidermal cells can secrete waxy cuticle -cuticle created when epidermal cell meets outside environment  Epidermal modifications Hair: called trichromes - on leaves and stems Reasons for this hair: 1. When they are evenly dispersed, they protect plants. They make it difficult for insects to walk on surface of plant. 2. To prevent evaporation : plants need to retain water, especially in drought conditions


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