New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Zoology week 3 notes

by: Hannah Kirby

Zoology week 3 notes BIOL 1114, 001

Hannah Kirby
GPA 3.1

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

these notes go over material in chapter 4 and 25 of the text
Intro to zoology
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Intro to zoology

Popular in Department

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.


Reviews for Zoology week 3 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/07/16
Week 3 notes­ Ch. 4, 25 The energy of life  How do cells use organic molecules to create energy? Energy, Enzymes, Homeostasis Energy  Potential vs kinetic  Harnessing energy vs heat loss  Atp = energy  Chem reactions sustain life Enzymes  Lower activation energy Potential vs kinetic: Chemical energy stored vs energy of movement PE ch. 6 concentration gradient across a membrane Energy transformations are inefficient energy is always lost as heat Energy in and out of a system: Endergonic (IN) Exergonic (OUT) High PE­ cellulose polymer that is storing a high amt of PE; required endorgonic reactions to  form this molecule (energy must go in before it can be stored) What happens when cellulose undergoes an exergonic reaction?  heat and light, CO2 How do cells harness energy without losing all to heat? PE is metabolized to form ATP, then  ATP is used for KE Chemical reactions sustain life Electron donor molecule(e­ transferred from donor to acceptor) electron acceptor  molecule donor is now oxidized molecule acceptor is now reduced molecule O.I.L. R.I.G. = oxidation is lost, reduction is gained oxidation is loss of electrons, energy released (exergonic) Reduction is the gain of electrons, requires energy (endorgonic) Mitochondria­ energy transferred through oxidation and reduction with goal to make ATP Electron transport chain­ series of membrane proteins that are used to transfer electrons  from donor to acceptor  Powerhouse of the cell­mitochondria Has one major job ADP(bonds with)P ATP concentration gradient Energy stored in P­P bonds ATP is a nucleotide that temporarily stores energy Potential energy is in the P, when youo break the P­P bond, you release energy  (hydrolysis) ADP + energy Eat food  transfer energy  ATP (producing)ATP formation coupled with other exergonic reactions (spending)ATP breakdown is coupled with other endergonic reactions ATP can energize other molecules ATP donates a phosphate group that changes the shape of the target molecule How does our body control the rate of chem reactions? ENZYMES Lower activation energy (energy required to start a reaction) Enzymes are proteins (reusable protein that speeds up chemical reactions) Many factors effect enzyme activity Active sites can change shape or be blocked (noncompetitive inhibition)   Auto regulatory negative feedback loop most enzymes have optimal temp and pH level An indirect way of altering overall level of enzyme activity  ****Since enzymes are proteins, and proteins come from genes, rate of protein synthesis  can be controlled by genes “transcription” Homeostasis: Organ system interactions promote homeostasis Temp, blood pressure, pH, fluid composition Homeostasis is state of internal constancy of the above^^^  Interstitial fluid bathes all body cells—passageway between organ systems Negative feedback is a self­correcting system  Positive feedback—an initial signal leads to an action that perpetuates more action, thus causing  amplification Thermoregulation: Regulation of temp and water (ex: lizard on a rock) Heat transfer­ convection, conduction, radiation Ratio of surface area to volume To increase surface area, make folds and creases Endotherm­ regulate body temperature internally; heat generated in metabolism counters heat  loss (warm blooded) hypothalamus controls body temperature and initiates responses  (sweating, shivering, raising fur, dilating/constricting blood vessels, etc) Ectotherm­ thermoregulates by moving to areas where it can gain or lose heat (energetically  favorable) (cold blooded) Problem with sending warm blood to extremities; warm blood leaves core, gets cooled, and  returns cold blood to core so counter current exchange (ex: wolf) Vasoconstriction­ reduces heat loss­ body stops sending blood to extremities Vasodilation­ sends more blood to extremities, heat dissipates (can be alcohol induced) Behavioral adaptation­ huddling conserves heat, whereas panting loses excess heat Osmoregulation: Body fluid homeostasis­ urine regulates salt and water balance water follows solutes Saltwater fish will drink water, expel salt, water seeps through body Freshwater fish won’t drink water, any salts will filter out and water goes through body  and is urinated Land animals also have strategies to obtain and conserve water (metabolizes water or  consumes water and urinates or sweats


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.