Zoology week 3 notes
Zoology week 3 notes BIOL 1114, 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Week 3 notes Ch. 4, 25 The energy of life How do cells use organic molecules to create energy? Energy, Enzymes, Homeostasis Energy Potential vs kinetic Harnessing energy vs heat loss Atp = energy Chem reactions sustain life Enzymes Lower activation energy Potential vs kinetic: Chemical energy stored vs energy of movement PE ch. 6 concentration gradient across a membrane Energy transformations are inefficient energy is always lost as heat Energy in and out of a system: Endergonic (IN) Exergonic (OUT) High PE cellulose polymer that is storing a high amt of PE; required endorgonic reactions to form this molecule (energy must go in before it can be stored) What happens when cellulose undergoes an exergonic reaction? heat and light, CO2 How do cells harness energy without losing all to heat? PE is metabolized to form ATP, then ATP is used for KE Chemical reactions sustain life Electron donor molecule(e transferred from donor to acceptor) electron acceptor molecule donor is now oxidized molecule acceptor is now reduced molecule O.I.L. R.I.G. = oxidation is lost, reduction is gained oxidation is loss of electrons, energy released (exergonic) Reduction is the gain of electrons, requires energy (endorgonic) Mitochondria energy transferred through oxidation and reduction with goal to make ATP Electron transport chain series of membrane proteins that are used to transfer electrons from donor to acceptor Powerhouse of the cellmitochondria Has one major job ADP(bonds with)P ATP concentration gradient Energy stored in PP bonds ATP is a nucleotide that temporarily stores energy Potential energy is in the P, when youo break the PP bond, you release energy (hydrolysis) ADP + energy Eat food transfer energy ATP (producing)ATP formation coupled with other exergonic reactions (spending)ATP breakdown is coupled with other endergonic reactions ATP can energize other molecules ATP donates a phosphate group that changes the shape of the target molecule How does our body control the rate of chem reactions? ENZYMES Lower activation energy (energy required to start a reaction) Enzymes are proteins (reusable protein that speeds up chemical reactions) Many factors effect enzyme activity Active sites can change shape or be blocked (noncompetitive inhibition) Auto regulatory negative feedback loop most enzymes have optimal temp and pH level An indirect way of altering overall level of enzyme activity ****Since enzymes are proteins, and proteins come from genes, rate of protein synthesis can be controlled by genes “transcription” Homeostasis: Organ system interactions promote homeostasis Temp, blood pressure, pH, fluid composition Homeostasis is state of internal constancy of the above^^^ Interstitial fluid bathes all body cells—passageway between organ systems Negative feedback is a selfcorrecting system Positive feedback—an initial signal leads to an action that perpetuates more action, thus causing amplification Thermoregulation: Regulation of temp and water (ex: lizard on a rock) Heat transfer convection, conduction, radiation Ratio of surface area to volume To increase surface area, make folds and creases Endotherm regulate body temperature internally; heat generated in metabolism counters heat loss (warm blooded) hypothalamus controls body temperature and initiates responses (sweating, shivering, raising fur, dilating/constricting blood vessels, etc) Ectotherm thermoregulates by moving to areas where it can gain or lose heat (energetically favorable) (cold blooded) Problem with sending warm blood to extremities; warm blood leaves core, gets cooled, and returns cold blood to core so counter current exchange (ex: wolf) Vasoconstriction reduces heat loss body stops sending blood to extremities Vasodilation sends more blood to extremities, heat dissipates (can be alcohol induced) Behavioral adaptation huddling conserves heat, whereas panting loses excess heat Osmoregulation: Body fluid homeostasis urine regulates salt and water balance water follows solutes Saltwater fish will drink water, expel salt, water seeps through body Freshwater fish won’t drink water, any salts will filter out and water goes through body and is urinated Land animals also have strategies to obtain and conserve water (metabolizes water or consumes water and urinates or sweats
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