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EAPS 116: Week 4 of Notes

by: Zach Weinkauf

EAPS 116: Week 4 of Notes EAPS 116

Marketplace > Purdue University > Earth Sciences > EAPS 116 > EAPS 116 Week 4 of Notes
Zach Weinkauf
Earthquake and Volcanos
Julie Elliot

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About this Document

These notes cover all material from week 4 of class lecture and book reading. Red Material is likely quiz and possible exam material.
Earthquake and Volcanos
Julie Elliot
Class Notes
Earthquakes, volcanoes
25 ?




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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zach Weinkauf on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EAPS 116 at Purdue University taught by Julie Elliot in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Earthquake and Volcanos in Earth Sciences at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Lecture 7 February 2 2016 Intensity damage caused by an earthquake Seismic waves from fastest to slowest gt Pwaves gt Swaves gt Surface Waves Travel time curves use the difference between arrival times of pwaves and swaves at a station to determine the distance between station and the earthquake39s epicenter Measuring the Size of an Earthquake Magnitude gt gt gt Richter scale estimates how big an earthquakes energy is based on arrival times of P and S waves 0 Only works for close shallow quakes ML Local Magnitude same as Richter Ms Surface Wave Magnitude uses amplitude of Rayleigh Waves gt MW Body Wave Magnitude O O O 0 Uses amplitudes of different seismic waves Uses the area of the portion of fault that moved Uses the amount of slip that occurred along the fault Uses the material characteristics of rock that fractured gt Every time the magnitude increases by 1 energy increases by 32 Where earthquakes happen gt Plate Boundaries gt Seduction Zone where the largest earthquakes happen gt How large can earthquake get 0 O O O Seduction M9 Transform M885 No known fault can produce M10 Magnitude depends on the area of fault that moved the amount of slip on a fault plane amplitude of several different kinds of seismic waves and material characteristics of rock that fractured What happens during an earthquake gt Sequence VVVV O O O Foreshock precursor to a large earthquake not known as foreshock until larger earthquake occurs Mainshock the largest earthquake that occurs Aftershock smaller earthquakes that happen in the same area of the fault occurs after the largest earthquakemainshock Fault Rupture act of a fault breaking and area of fault that moved Fault Slip the amount that area moved Rupture Area not always the same as Rupture Length Rupture Length measure of the fault ruptured gt Rupture Prorogation how the rupture goes along the fault gt Slip amount of motion during an earthquake how much fault moves quotBlind Faultsquot when the fault doesn39t reach the surface results in folds of earth s surface Duration of Earthquakes gt Most last a few seconds gt Largest earthquakes can last minutes gt Rupture duration is not the same thing as ground shaking Ground Shaking Magn ude Distance from hypocenter Ground conditionsmaterial Frequency of seismic waves 0 Fundamental Frequency 75 Hertz VVVV gt Earthquake Ruptures can vary signi cantly in size between earthquakes in the same region gt Slip on a fault plane during an earthquake is NOT always smooth and uniform gt Generally a larger rupture length during an earthquake produces a larger magnitude earthquake gt Surface ruptures during an earthquake depend on material properties of ground and location of fault planes Lecture 8 February 4 2016 Magnitude Calculations gt Parameters are re ned gt Not estimated instantaneously during an earthquake gt Not estimated incrementally Secondary Effects of Earthquakes gt Primary vs Secondary 0 Primary RupturesSurface Displacement Ground Shaking 0 Secondary Tsunami a large wave along the sea surface triggered by an earthquake Liquefactions when something solid becomes liquid normally ground 0 Sand Blows Sand Volcanoes Landslides sudden movement of rock and debris down a nonvertical slope Fires When a tsunami wave approaches the coastline its velocity decreases and amplitude of the wave increases Ground shaking or liquefaction can cause a landslide Ground Shaking is in uenced by 0 Magnitude 0 Frequency of seismic waves 0 Distance from the hypocenter


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