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Week 1 for Exam 2 notes

by: Neha Bhagirath

Week 1 for Exam 2 notes 1510

Neha Bhagirath

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About this Document

this is the first set of notes for the next exam, it has stuff that she says in class plus everything that was on the slides
General Biology
Karen Myhr
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Neha Bhagirath on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1510 at Wayne State University taught by Karen Myhr in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Wayne State University.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
ON EXAM 2  February 5  Prokaryote (not membrane bound organelles) and eukaryote (membrane bound organelles)  similarities:   1)nucleoid­prokaryote or nucleus­eukaryote for DNA  2)cytoplasm (liquidy with organelles) (organelles plus cytosol­liquid)  3)ribosomes­in prokaryotes, not membrane bound   4)plasma membrane­prokaryotes have a phospholipid bilayer membrane around the whole cell  (embedded with proteins)  5)cytoskeleton ­determines the shape of the cell. The cytoskeleton is a bunch of proteins that  make the shape of the cell. the shape determines the function so the cytoskeleton is important   ­prokaryotes can’t process proteins as well as eukaryotes     Prokaryotic cells  ­simplest organisms  ­nucleoid, not nucleus  ­single circular chromosome instead of a bunch of linear chromosomes  ­CELL WALL­for prokaryotes it is ___? (look up)  ­two domains with prokaryotes­­archaea and bacteria   ­cellulose makes the plant cell wall instead of peptidoglycan for prokaryotes   ­bacteria come in many shapes and sizes. There is fluid in the inside. Cytoplasm, ribosomes  (little brown dots), nucleoid, plasma membrane > cell wall >capsule, flagellum, pili    Bacterial cell walls  ­Peptidoglycan (unlike cell walls of plants, fungi, archaea, most protists)  ­protection, shape, structure  ­antibiotic targets  ­linking of proteins to surround the prokaryotes?  ­what will rupture the peptidoglycan cell wall?  ­we do not have peptidoglycan code covering in our cells (this is only in prokaryotes) because it  kills all the good bacteria in the gut as well    ­good bacteria are for digestion, etc   ­Flagella: prokaryotes have none, one, or more. Rotary motion propels cell. ATP goes to making  that cytoskeleton move and that move the prokaryote in the direction of the movement of the  flagella    Eukaryotic Cells  ­membrane bound nucleus and organelles (compartments)   ­have linear chromosomes   ­Plasma membrane is the membrane outside the cell   ­plant cells are also eukaryotic   ­organelles that are the same: mitochondria, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi  ­vacuole (for water regulation)­only in plants?    Mitochondria and Chloroplasts: energy processing  ­mitochondria is in plant cells and they use it with chloroplasts to make ATP?    Mitochondria  ­in all eukaryotes  ­compartments: outer membrane, intermembrane space (between 2 membranes), inner  membrane has cristae (folds), matrix (space inside the ​ inner​ membrane)?  ­inner membrane ­ oxidative metabolism (that’s where the oxygen is being used)  ­these structures are critical for the FUNCTION of the mitochondria   ­have their own DNA (circular, like prokaryote DNA)  ­1000 micrometers in a millimetre     Chloroplasts  ­in plants (some other eukaryotes)  ­chlorophyll for photosynthesis  ­surrounded by 2 membranes  ­thylakoids ­ sacs within inner membrane  ­grana ­ stacks of thylakoids  ­have their own DNA   ­chloroplasts AND mitochondria are ATP generators, have double membranes, in plants and  animals     Endosymbiosis ­ read up on this   ­Unknown archaeon became nucleus  ­protobacterium became mitochondrion  ­cyanobacterium became chloroplast    Chapter 5  Membranes  ­critical for the function of mitochondria and chloroplasts and cells  ­phospholipid bilayer with proteins  ­fluid mosaic model    Cell membrane components  1)Phospholipid bilayer (permeability barrier)  2)Transmembrane proteins in the bilayer that spread across the whole membrane and link to  interior peripheral proteins (integral proteins)  3)Interior protein network (peripheral proteins)  4)Cell surface markers (glycoproteins and glycolipids)   


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