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Gametogenesis and Reproduction in Plants

by: Blaise

Gametogenesis and Reproduction in Plants BIO 220-01

Marketplace > La Salle University > Biology > BIO 220-01 > Gametogenesis and Reproduction in Plants
La Salle
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About this Document

Covers lectures done on Reproduction in plants and gametogenesis
Structure and Function of Organisms
Geri Seitchik
Class Notes
Biology, reproduction, Gametogenesis




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Blaise on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 220-01 at La Salle University taught by Geri Seitchik in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Structure and Function of Organisms in Biology at La Salle University.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
Gametogenesis  Formation and Maturation both controlled by anterior pituitary hormones o FSH (follicle stimulating)-female o LH (Lutenizing H)-female o Interstitial cell hormone –male  In the male o Spermatogenesis – formation o Spermiogenesis – maturation o Both take place in seminiferous tubules of the testes  IN the female o Oogenesis – formation and maturation occur at the same time  Oacyte forms and matures egg all in one step  Difference is timing BIG ISSUE o Male – gametogenesis not until puberty …  Nothing happens until puberty  Process will continue throughout sexual life once puberty happens  NO SET END  There may be decrease but no end o Female  Begins when FETUS – in uterus … not born yet  By the time she is born the process stops … not completed  Starts again at puberty  Not continuing  Starts and stops monthly  ENDS @ menopause MALE  He can make batches of sperm throughout his life  Spermatogonia in testes o Stem cells  Make more by mitosis  Stem cells make more stem cells  MAJOR DIFFERENCE o Diploid o At some point in life it decides not to make any more stem cells but decides to become a sperm o Primary spermatocyte commits to become sperm  Cannot go back  Uses meiosis o Primary spermatocyte = 2n/4n = chrm# / DNA  LOOK AT SLIDE 26 o One primary spermatocyte form four spermatids then becomes four sperm (haploid)  Does not look like sperm… it is round  Spermiogenesis does not divide  Head of sperm is basically a nucleus (LOOK @ 27)  Acrosome is sack filled with enzymes that break barrier of egg o Derived from golgi  Upper end of tail has mitochondria  Tail is flagellum  NEED T KNOW o Head is nucleus with acrosome o Neck is upper part  Flexible region to connect tail to head o Tail then upper tail has mitochondria  Sperm does not leave on its own OOGENESIS (female)  Begins before puberty  Starts before born with oogonium (diploid) o Make more through mitosis  When ovaries reach certain number of these stem cells all of them stop dividing by mitosis and commit to meiosis @ the same time o CANNOT MAKE ANYMORE ONCE ALL ENTER MEIOSIS o She’ll have all the eggs shell ever have  The committed cell is primary ooacyte  She gets larger through own synthesis or from external needs o Gets what she needs to get started o Yolk is nutritive needed to develop o Ovaries don’t make yolk because we have placenta  When primary ooacyte in womb she is in prophase one  Still in prophase I after birth o Ooacyte arrested at this stage  No oogonium in ovaries – ONLY OOACYTE IN PRO 1  In puberty ooacyte completes meiosis I o At the end first polar body and secondary oacyte are made o Has exocentic nucleus o Both are 1n/2n  Meiosis 1 sep homologs st o 1 polar body removes set of homologs because we need 1n/1n o Secondary oacyte undergoes meiosis 2  Not completed until sperm enters  Metaphase II aresst happens until sperm  When sperm enters meiosis II is completed o Second polar body result of meiosis 2  removes ??? o If no sperm the egg is shed during mensis  DIFFERENCE IN MALE AND FEMALE o HE STREAMLINES SHE ENLARGES Ovarion menstrual cycle  2 cycles that occur at the same time but at diff places o Ovarion takes place in ovary  Takes primary follicle to maturation  Leads to the release of a fertilizable secondary oacyte o Mentstrual cyce occurs in uterus  Starts with shedding of the endometrium from the previous month  Whole does not shed but most of it does  Starts building a new one  If no pregnancy then starts shedding again  Get rids of old enodmitrium then gets new endo thingy o Both controlled by hormones o Lsh controls first half and LH is second halfe o Hormones produced during ovarion cycle o FSH reactiveates immature follicles  FSH  causes proliferation of follicle cells  Makes more cells with mitosis  FSH Also responsible for causing follicle cells to produce and secrete the female hormone estrogen  FSH completes meiosis one and begins meiosis 2  ALL TAKES PLACE IN FIRST 14 DAAYS  Only ONE of reactivated follicles will complete meiosis 1 and go to meiosis 2  Rest die and become scar tissue  Corpora Albicantia  Dead follicles – scar tissue  Why reactivated? o One will not produce enough estrogen  When enough estrogen is there all but one o LH  responsible for ovulation  Release of secondary ooacyte and surrounding follicle cells  Heals ruptured follicle and forms CORPUS LUTEUM  Causes CL to produce and secrete progesterone  LH Maintains the corpus luteum (keeps it alive) o In ovarion cycle when progesterone beomces o MENTSTRUAL CYCLE  Estrogen renew endo to certain height  Prog complete endo to maximum height  No Pregnancy o CL dies becase  Pregnancy REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS Leaves stems roots – means of reprod asexually  A sexual reproduction (stems) o Rhizomes – horizontal underground stem  Irises and grass are examples --- many not all grass o Tubers – enlarged storage stems  Ex) potato  Sprouts buds that become new plants o Bulbs – shortened underground stems  Have very fleshy leaves attached  Ex) tulips, lilies, daffodils, and onions o Stolons – horizontal above ground stem  Strawberries are an example  ALSO called runners  Flower is organ of reproduction o Two outer whorls are for protection and luring organism to the flower for fertilization o Two inside are the sexual organs o Innermost whorl  Carper or Pistil (female)  Consist of a sticky pad called the stigma which is where pollen will attach … pollen is the male gamete  Style – tube that takes pollen into the last part of the carpel which is the ovary(w/female gametes)  Male gamete is the STAMEN  Consists of anther and the filament  Anther is where the pollen is produced  Filament holds anther in place  Flower does no need to have both male and female gametes  When it has both many times it is not self-fertilizing – like animals  Needs to cross fertilize o Petals are the next whorl  Lure birds bees etc to the flower  Function is to lure organism to the plant for cross fertilization o OUTER MOST WHORL  Sepals – protects the flower when it was a bud  In fruit the seeds 


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