Chapter 14 Book Notes and Lecture Notes
Chapter 14 Book Notes and Lecture Notes PSY 100
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Grau on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at University of Kentucky taught by Prof. Ray Archer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Chapter 14 Lecture Notes: Personality Personality: the distinctive and stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterize an individual a. Consistency and stability b. Distinctiveness c. Development - Includes thought, feelings, and behavior - Internal Approaches to Personality 1. Trait: characteristics unique to individuals—Follows bell-shaped curve a. Gordon Allport (1897-1967) - Central traits: 3-10 traits that best describe you - Cardinal Trait: single characteristic that influences about everything that you do (Rare for individuals) b. Factor Analysis to identify underlying dimensions - Decide what goes in - Determine interrelationships (correlation) - Factor clusters - Name the factors c. Raymond Cattell: Found 16 dimensions (don’t need to know the dimensions) d. Hans Eysenck: Found 3 dimensions (all due to biological reasons) - Extraversion - Neuroticism: emotional stability - Psychoticism: our ability to show empathy High psychoticism exhibits antisocial behavior e. The Big 5 (McCrae and Costa, 1985)—Need to know - Openness (to experiences) - Conscientiousness: dependability - Extraversion - Agreeableness: social compliance - Neuroticism 2. Biological 1. Genetics a. Twin-studies and adoption studies b. Temperament: lead to personality differences EAS model: Emotionality; Activity Level; Sociability c. Specific genes Not strong support that a specific gene influences certain personalities 2. Biological mechanisms a. Eysenck’s model for extraversion Introverts more sensitive to stimulation b. Neurochemicals 3. Evolutionary Focus 3. Psychodynamic: started w/ Freud Model of Consciousness 1. Conscious 2. Preconscious: everything we have direct access to but not currently thinking about 3. Unconscious: all material we do not have direct access to a. Traumatic events b. Unconscious desires Structure of Personality 1. Id: reservoir of instinctual energy (libido) a. Pleasure Principle: immediate gratification of needs with no regard for consequences 2. Ego a. Develops out of the id b. Maximize please and minimize pain c. Reality principle 3. Superego a. Develops around 5-6 years of age b. First represents approval of parents—morals c. 2 parts: conscious and ego idea Stages of Psychosexual Development 1. Oral 2. Anal 3. Phallic a. Most pieces of personality occurs during this stage b. Begins to love opposite-sex parent and hostility/hatred toward same-sex parent - Oedipal complex/Electra Complex - Formative of superego—identification - Girls develop ‘penis envy’ Women have weaker superegos than men 4. Latency 5. Genital Defense Mechanisms: ways we involuntarily keep disturbing motives/ feelings from reaching consciousness 1. Repression: Involves pushing down or blocking from conscious awareness thoughts or memories that are stressful 2. Rationalization: way to explain irrational behavior 3. Regression: Individual tries to go back to particular behavior of previous time/age 4. Reaction Formation 5. Projection: projecting your own thoughts, feelings, or desires onto someone else 6. Displacement: redirection of unacceptable impulses onto a substitute target 7. Sublimation: changing forbidden impulses into behaviors that are socially acceptable Carl Jung—Analytic Psychology - All humans are born with commonalities passed from our ancestors: Collective Unconscious Archetypes - When confronted with certain archetypes, we have the same reaction Alfred Adler—Individual Psychology - Believed sex played a small role - Striving toward superiority was main focus a. Compensation: Striving to overcome real or imagined inferiority by developing our abilities b. Inferiority complex c. First to analyze effects of birth order Evaluating Freud’s Theory and the Psychodynamic approach: - Sexist - Based on case-studies - Focused a lot on sex—many other motivations outside of sex - All internal, unconscious mechanisms that develop personality 4. Humanistic: most positive—we are motivated toward personal growth 1. Carl Rogers—Person Centered Theory a. Real self vs. Ideal Self Real Self: How you really are Ideal Self: How you would like to be b. Discrepancy between the two = incongruence c. Unconditional positive regard d. Humans have two needs: Positive regard Self actualization Fully functioning Person: when all conditions are met 2. Abraham Maslow a. Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Safety Love Esteem Self-actualization 5. Learning/Social-Cognitive a. Classical conditioning b. Operant conditioning c. Observational conditioning (social cognitive) Chapter 14: Personality I. Introduction to Personality and Psychodynamic Theories: Two theories surfaced 1. Psychoanalytic: Proposed by Sigmund Freud; states that childhood sexuality and unconscious motivations influence personality 2. Humanistic: Focuses on our inner-desire for growth and self-fulfillment. A. Psychodynamic Theories 1. : View personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences 1. Descended from Freud’s psychoanalysis a. Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts b. Freud’s encounters with patients with neurological disorders with no practical cause led to investigation of potential physiological disorders c. Developed several hypotheses: - Speculated that the disorders were driven by the unconscious : A reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Modern def: Information processing of which we are unaware - Free Association: a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing d. Believed that the mind is mostly hidden—the conscious mind reveals significantly less than what we actually feel or think - Freud focused on repressed thoughts—those that were not acceptable and therefore unacknowledged 2. Freud believed personality arose from a conflict between impulse and restraint a. Id: unconscious drives. Operates on a pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification b. Ego: largely conscious “Executive” part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality such that it will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain c. Superego: part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgements and for future aspirations - Emerges around 4-5 years old - Morals 3. Freud believed that personality forms early in life and that children pass through a series of psychosexual stages - : The childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genitals)during which the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones Stage Focus Oral (0-18 months) Pleasure centers on the mouth— sucking, biting, chewing Anal (18-36 months) Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping w/ demands for control Phallic (3-6 years) Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings Latency (6 years-puberty) A phase of dormant sexual feelings Genitals (puberty on) Maturation of sexual interests b. Oedipus complex: a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father - Eventually the repress these feelings - Identification process: the process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos - Identification w/ the same-sex parent provides children w/ their gender identity c. Conflicts unresolved during early psychosexual stages could surface as a maladapted behavior in adults - Result is fixation: a lingering focus of pleasure- seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved - Result of overindulgence or deprivation 4. Freud proposed that the ego protects itself via defense mechanisms a. : An ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality b. All defense mechanisms function indirectly and unconsciously B. The Neo-Freduian and Later Psychodynamic Theorists 1. Physician psychoanalysts who accepted Freud’s basic ideas a. The personality structures of id, ego, and superego b. Importance of the unconscious c. Childhood roots of personality d. Dynamics of anxiety and defense mechanisms 2. Two important differences from Freud a. Placed more emphasis on conscious mind’s role in interpreting experience and coping with the environment b. Doubted sex and aggression were all-consuming motivations; More emphasis placed on loftier motives and social interactions 3. Alfred Adler believed behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority a. Results in striving for superiority and power 4. Horneye argued that childhood anxiety triggers desire for love and security a. Countered Freud’s assumption that women suffer from “penis envy” and have weak superegos 5. Jung believed the unconscious contains more than out repressed thoughs and feelings a. Also believed humans have a collective unconscious - : Carl Jung’s concept of a shared inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history - Why people have deeply-rooted spiritual concerns - Discounted hypothesis of many moderns psychoanalysts but believed evolutionary history shapes some universal dispositions b. Modern psychoanalysts believe that much of our mental life is unconscious - Assume we struggle with inner conflicts among our wishes, fears, and values and childhoods shapes our personality and ways of becoming attached to others C. Assuming Unconscious Processes 1. Personality tests: a personality test, such as the Rorschach test that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projections of one’s inner-dynamic a. Useful as an assessment tool for someone in Freudian tradition b. Henry Murray (1983) provided some evidence for such a test - Game called “Murder” - Children perceived pictures shown after playing the game as more malicious than they did before the game c. Murray introduced hematic Apperception Test (TAT) - : A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes - Also used to assess achievement motivation d. Rorschach inkblot test - The most widely used projective test - Some use only as a suggestive lead - Some criticize that the evidence for its reliability is insufficient—has no emotional MRI D. Evaluating Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective and Modern Views of the Unconscious 1. Modern research contradicts many of Freud’s ideas a. Infant neural networks aren’t mature enough to sustain emotional trauma as proposed by Freud b. Doubt that conscience and gender identity form as a child resolves the Oedipus Complex at age 5 or 6 - Gender identity gained sooner - Masculinity and femininity forms w/o same sex parent presence c. New hypotheses concerning why we sleep 2. Freud’s theory offers few objective observations and hypotheses are rarely testable 3. Offers after-the-fact explanations of characteristics but fails to predict behaviors and traits 4. Repression is a rare response to trauma a. Those who survived Nazi camps still remember details b. Some believe that extreme, prolonged stress might disrupt memory by damaging the hippocampus 5. Research DOES support two of Freud’s defense mechanisms: a. Reaction formation b. Projection: Tendency to see one’s own traits, attitudes, and goals in others - Called false consensus effect 6. Research Also supports Freud’s idea that we unconsciously defend ourselves against anxiety a. Terror-management theory: a theory of death- related anxiety; explores peoples’ emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death - Increases aggression toward rivals and esteem for oneself II. Humanistic Theories and Trait Theories A. Humanistic Theories 1. Focus on the ways people strive for self-determination and self-realization a. Study people through their own self-reported experiences and feelings b. Differs from behaviorism 2. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow’s Three-Force Perspective a. Maslow proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs - Physiological needs - Personal safety - Love - Self-Esteem - Self-Actualization (process of fulfilling our potential) and self-transcendence b. Rogers had a person-centered perspective that people are basically good and endowed with self-actualizing tendencies - Environment can act as obstacle c. Believed a growth-promoting environment met 3 conditions - Genuineness - Acceptance i. Offer unconditional positive regard - Empathy d. Self-Concept is a central feature of personality - Assessed through deep personal conversations 3. Humanistic psychologists argue that a secure, non- definitive self-acceptance is the first step toward loving others 4. Arguments that humanistic psychology is naïve B. Trait Theories 1. Researchers attempt to define personality in terms of stable and enduring behavior patterns a. Gordon Allport - Described personality in terms of traits - More concerned with describing traits than explaining them b. Isabel Briggs Myers and Katherine Briggs - Tried to sort people according to Jung’s personality types - Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)—used mostly for consulting, leadership training, and work-team development 2. Factor analysis identifies clusters of correlated behaviors a. Traits correlated with extraversion as opposed to introversion b. Hans Eysenck and Sybil Eysenck reduces variation to 2 or 3 dimensions - Extraversion—Introversion - Emotional stability—Instability - Factors are genetically influenced 3. Biology and chemistry of the brain factors into behavior a. Normal brain arousal in extraverts is relatively low compared to introverts b. Frontal lobe behavior (provided by PET scan) is less active in extraverts than introverts c. Dopamine and dopamine-related neural activity is higher in extraverts d. Highly reactive autonomic nervous system can result in response to stress with greater anxiety and inhibition 4. Other species of animals also have stable personalities 5. Different methods of assessing traits a. Personality Inventories are used to assess several traits at once b. Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory - Starke Hathaway (1960) - Originally developed to identify emotional disorders - Can also be used to assess people’s personality traits - Similarly to Binet’s intelligence test, MMPI items were empirically derived - Today, also can be used to assess work attitudes, family problems, and anger 6. The ‘Big 5’ provides a more complete story of personality a. Currently the best approximation for the basic trait dimensions b. Explores various questions - How heritable are the traits? - How stable are the traits? - Do the traits reflect differing brain structures? - Have the traits changed over time? - Do the Big 5 traits predict actual behavior? 7. Behavior is influenced by the interaction of our inner disposition w/ our environment—person-situation controversy a. Traits and personality tend to be stable b. Traits also are socially significant - Influence health, thinking, job choices, and performance c. While traits are stable, behavior can change from day to day d. Inconsistency in behaviors make personality test scores weak predictors of behavior - Avg. behavior tendencies are predictable e. In unfamiliar and formal situations, we tend to hide our traits and tend more to social cues - When people are in comfortable situations, mannerisms are extremely consistent and small snippets of these moments can reveal one’s basic personality traits III. Social-Cognitive Theories and the Self A. Social-Cognitive Theories 1. Social-Cognitive Perspective emphasizes interaction of our traits with our situations a. Albert Bandura b. Theorists believe many behaviors are learned through conditioning or by observing and imitating others c. Emphasis also placed on mental processes 2. Reciprocal Determinism is the person-environment interaction a. Three specific ways individuals and environments interact: - Different people choose different environments - Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events - Our personalities help create situations to which we react 3. Genetically-influenced traits evolve certain responses from others 4. Assessment center exercises are more revealing of visible dimensions than others a. Ex) Communication ability b. Relies on principle that past behavior in situations tends to held true in future similar situations 5. Critics claim that social-cognitive theories neglect a person’s inner-traits B. Exploring the Self 1. Possible selves, the imagined future version of ourselves, act as motivators to lay our specific goals that direct our energy effectively and efficiently a. Can also result in the misconception that others are noticing and evaluating us—spotlight effect b. People are less aware of us than we perceive 2. The Benefits of Self-Esteem a. Self-esteem: one’s feelings of high or low self-worth b. Self efficacy: one’s sense of competence and effectiveness c. Misconception that giving praise in general will improve performance - Opposite is true. - Praise in face of poor performance actually resulted in worse performance d. In terms of self-esteem, deflating self-esteem resulted in more lashing out and racial prejudice - People tended to gravitate toward online profiles where they have control over self-worth portrayal 3. Costs of Self-Esteem a. Over-confidence without realism can hinder success - Stress/anxiety of not doing well on something can instill motivation to ensure success b. Excessive optimism can be blinding to real risks - Overconfidence in self-discipline can result in increased exposure to risks and temptation and therefore increased failure c. People tend to me more overconfident when most incompetent d. Most people exhibit a self-serving bias: a readiness to perceive ourselves favorably - We accept more responsibility for good deeds and outcomes than bad. Bad deeds and outcomes are often attributed to situation rather than self e. Narcissism: excessive self-love and self-absorption - On the rise in the population - Correlates to more materialistic values seen within society
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