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BIO108 week 4

by: Taylor Notetaker

BIO108 week 4 BSC 108

Taylor Notetaker
Troy University
GPA 3.8
Introductory Biology for Non Majors
christine yates

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About this Document

end of chapter 3 notes and chapter 4 notes
Introductory Biology for Non Majors
christine yates
Class Notes
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by christine yates in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for Non Majors in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
End of Chapter 3 Nucleic Acids 0 Provide the directions for building proteins 0 Include DNA and RNA 0 DNA resides in chromosomes long fibers 0 A gene is a long stretch of DNA that program the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide 0 DNA gtRNAgtProtein 4 Nucleic Acids 1 Adenine 2 Guanine 3 Thymine 4 Cytosine A and T always pair up and C and G always pair up all for DNA Thymine changes to Uracil for RNA so A and U pair up and still C and G pair up 0 DNA joins to form a double helix structure 0 Bases along one DNA strand hydrogen bond to bases along the other strand Chapter 4 A Tour of the Cell 0 Light Microscope LM can be used to explore the structures and functions of cells light passes through the specimen from the bottom of the microscope Two Factors that determine the quality of microscopy 1 Magnification the increase in a specimen s size 2 Resolving Power the ability of an optical instrument to show an image as two separate images 0 Scanning Electron Microscope SEM examines the cells surface 0 Transmission Electron Microscope TEM useful for internal details of cells Features Common in All Cells 0 Plasma membrane phospholipid bilayer selective barrier Q Cytosol or cytoplasmthe area within the membrane not including the organelles Q Ribosomes where protein synthesis happens 0 All have at least one chromosome Two Major Types of Cells 1 Prokaryotic bacteria archaea 2 Eukaryotic plants fungi animals humans Fluid Mosaic when the membrane phospholipids and proteins drift about in the plane of the membrane Extracellular matrix animal cells have this they help hold together tissues and protectssupports them Cell Surfaces 0 Many secrete materials to coat outside surfaces 0 External to the plasma membrane 0 Helps protect and support cells Cell Junctions structures that help interactions with their neighbouring cells 1 Adhesion happens in your skin cells makes sure your cells communication with one another so they don t over grow and create a tumor 2 Gap Junction this is found in your heart 3 Tight Junction found in your bladder so that you don t secrete fluids Plant cells have cell walls outside of their membrane which helps 1 Protect the cells 2 Maintain their shape 3 Keep cells from absorbing too much water 4 It s mostly made out of cellulose Nuclear envelope a double membrane that boarded the nucloues Nucluesous is the inside of the nucleus and inside the nuclear envelope this is where ribosomes are made Nuclear Pores on the outside of the nucleus where ribosomes and RNA leave Chromatin long DNA molecules and associated proteins that form fibers Ribosomes in the Cytoplasm Q Can be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum ER Endomembrane System Manufacturing and Distributing cellular products 1 Endoplasmic Reticulum ER consists of the Rough ER and the Smooth ER it modifies a variety of proteins that are first made on ribosomes The Rough ER modifies membrane proteins and secretory proteins and produces new membranes The Smooth ER produces lipids including steroids like sex hormones and is home to enzymes that detoxify foreign molecules like drugs 2 Golgi Apparatus works with the ER refines stores and distributes the chemical products of the cell 3 Lysosomes a sac of digestive enzymes found in animal cells destroy harmful bacteriabreak down the 4 macromolecules they engulf nutrients in tiny cytoplasms called food vacuoles 4 Vacuoles membranous sacs that stem from the ER the golgi and the plasma membrane Lysosomes Diseases 0 Serious inherited diseases come from Iysosomes that don t work properly 0 EX TaySachs Disease lipids build up in the brain causing child to die around age 2 0 These Iysosomes lack functioning enzymes Contractile Vacuoles pump out extra water in the cell Central Vacuoles are found in plants they store nutrients absorb water and contain pigment or poison sometimes Chloroplast are the organelles that perform photosynthesis Photosynthesis the conversion of sunlight to the chemical energy of sugar 0 Stroma thick fluid within the chloroplast Q Granathe structure that encloses sunlight and converts it to sugar Mitochondria the site of cellular respiration produces ATP from food molecules 0 It s found in almost all Eukaryotic cells including ours 0 Has an outer and inner membrane plus the inner folding which are called cristae The Mitochondria and Chloroplast both contain their own DNA which encodes some of their proteins they also evolved from freeliving prokaryotic cells in the distant past The Cytoskeleton 0 Provides mechanical support and maintains cell shape 0 it contains microtubules they guide the movement of organelles and chromosomes and intermediate filaments Cilia and Flagella Q Motile appendages Q Flagella moves in a whip like motion ex sperm 0 Cilia moves in a back and forth motion eXtiny hairs in our nose


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