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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Notetaker on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY103 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jenny Shaw in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Crisis in the Colonies Lecture 6 Pueblo Revolt (Discipline and the Inquisition) ● Intimidation and violence was used to convert Pueblo Indians (Franciscan priests were the ones converting the people) ● Spanish inquisition worked to stomp out traditional religious ceremonies in New Mexico ● They later burned indian statues, masks, and other sacred objects because the Pueblo people weren't acting like good Catholics Pope’s Appeal ● Born in 1630 ● 1675: Pope one of 47 Pueblo's that was arrested for sorcery (he was taken to Santa Fe to be whipped in front of people so that others could see and they would change their ways) ● After the whipping event Pope started holding secret meetings and coordinated an uprising to get back at the Spanish ● Pope promises Pueblo success if they return to workshopping Indian deities Pueblo Revolt ● Started on August 10th 1680 ● 2,000 attacks and destroy missions (400 colonist and 21 persists were killed) ● They blocked the roads, destroyed smaller settlements one at a time, then surrounded Santa Fe basically driving out the Spanish. ● They destroyed all the fruit trees, livestock like cattle, and Christian symbols to make a new society for themselves Aftermath of the Revolt ● The pueblo people lived in peace for many years following after ● 1692: Alliance disintegrates ● Spanish return in 1696 to New Mexico but this time they don’t reassert the same labor practices on the Pueblos and they don't push their religion onto the people. King Philip’s War 1675 English Incursions ● Praying Towns these were places where indians and the english practiced christianity and farmed land. In 1670 there were 14 towns. Basically the indians went to these places to feel more european . The English grew suspicious of these towns because they didn't want to Indians to turn against them. Land Claims ● English continue to claim Indian lands ● 1660’s Wampanoag territory was claimed by RI, MA, and plymouth colonies without making a trade of some kind with the indians. Metacom(King Philip)Appeal ● He wants to give back to the Wampanoag because of the English incursions ● He unties with the Nipmucks (CT) and Abenaki (ME) and later the Narragansetts and promises that together they can get rid of the English War ● 1675 Wampanoag attack MA towns ● 12 towns were wiped out and 40 were damaged ● Both sides were using guerilla war tactics (scalping their victims) ● 1 out of 10 New England men population was either killed or captured ● English ally with the Mohawks to try and fight back (Mohawks were enemies to all the other indian tribes) ● 1676 Metacom was killed, native resistance collapses, and captives were sold off into slavery which included Metacom’s wife and son. ● Meanwhile people in the praying towns were shipped off to an island off the MA harbor so that they wouldn’t get involved with the war (for fear of the indians turning against their faith and people) Bacon’s Rebellion English Incursion on the frontier ● 1650best land in eastern VA claimed ● Governor Berkeley Corrupt ○ He grants land to his elite friends and people who support him ○ Sets taxes extremely high to benefit himself ○ Profits personally from the fur trade ● All of the governor’s corruptness leads to the poor getting poorer because the small planters become laborers and indentures were extended with no land and harsher punishments Nathaniel Bacon’s Appeal ● He was a newcomer to the land. (a member of the elite who was well educated and wealthy) ● United servants and freemen against the Native Americans ● He promised to exterminate the natives and distribute all the land Bacon’s Rebellion ● May 1676 Bacon leds assault on Native American village ● Leds siege on Susquehannock village for 6 weeks, then later attacks Occaneechi ● Marches on Jamestown Berkeley forced to flee ● October 1676 Bacon died of dysentery but the rebellion was accomplished, the indians dispersed, and the land was free for settlement of colonist. ● Berkley was out of office because of the way he handled the whole rebellion ● White land owners now wanted to draw a line of what blacks and whites in VA deserved 1692, 200 Years after Columbus 3 major empires emerged and are all very different 1. The Spanish Empire indian labor, small farms, and Catholic missions 2. French Empire in New France important fur trade, Catholic missions, West Indies sugar and slaves 3. English Empire urban and rural land, large populations, big trading networks, increasingly more dependent on enslaved laborers. Lecture 7 Slavery in British North America Societies with Slaves v.s Slave Societies Societies with Slaves: Middle Colonies and New England ● Servitude, slavery, and wage labor all coexist (not just dependent on slavery) ● Skin color did not determine whether you were free or enslaved ● “Atlantic Creoles” These people had good linguistic skills, more likely to be baptized or given christian names, also were mediators. (great deal of flexibility in work style) Anthony Johnson “Antonio the negro” ● Arrived in VA in 1619 ● Was one of the first African enslaved people in VA ● Marries Mary in 1625 (also enslaved) and changed his name to Anthony Johnson ● In 1630 they both are freed and set up a plantation on the eastern shore in 1650 ● He owned indentured Englishmen and enslaved Africans working for him (skin color didn’t matter) ● In 1677 grandson John named the plantation “Angola” Slave Societies ● Dependent on slavery ● Very Hierarchical there was a big distinction between slave and free(white skin was free and black skin was enslaved) ● Slavery was the foundation to these societies in which they held social order ● Master control everything: sometimes even the naming of the slaves ● The places in which the slaves live was often called dependences ● Very little movement for the people of color in these societies Societies with Slaves (Middle colonies and England) ● A lot of the slavery is urban (more common than rural) ● Enslaved people work as artisans, on farms, at the docks, or in the homes as housekeepers cleaning and cooking for their masters. Legal Codes are generous in New England 1. Marriage was recognized by law 2. Physical abuse was frowned upon 3. Slaves can testify in court 4. Slaves can also own property and hand it down to their heirs *Free populations of color grow in urban centers Slave Societies (West Indies Barbados) ● Was settled in 1627 ● First slave society in America ● Was dominate in sugar production ● The population between whites and enslaved Africans by 1660s equalled one another then come about 1679 the African enslaved population almost tripled while the white population came to a stance. Sugar in Barbados ● Was a status for wealthy Europeans ● Was used as medicine, in desserts, and as a condiment ● The production of sugar anticipates the industrial revolution ● The labor was very intensive because there was a 48 hour window to get through the whole process before sugar goes bad ● Death rates at the plantations was very high Barbados Slave Code 1660s ● Harsh punishment for slaves who ran away ● White men could kill their slaves with impunity ● Slaves couldn’t testify in court, own property, or have a recognizable marriage by the law ● The status of the child was determined by the mother’s status (which was opposite of what the English originally had) this ensured that the master could have a slave growing population. The master could rape an enslaved women and the children would still be slaves. Chesapeake ● Becomes a slave society in the 18th century ● VA shifts from society with slaves to a slave society ● They copied the Barbados code but altered it in their own ways ○ Slaves are property of their masters ○ No black man enslaved or free could own firearms, strike a white man, or employ white servants. ○ Any white person had the right to ask a black person to show proof of their freedom ● Tobacco is still the primary crop of VA it was very intensive labor ● Anthony Johnson’s grandchildren are re entered into slavery ● High surveillance by whites on the black on plantations ● Slave community started growing itself
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