Last week's Psychology lecture notes 2/1-2/5
Last week's Psychology lecture notes 2/1-2/5 PSYCH 201
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lane Chloe on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 201 at Clemson University taught by Jo Jorgensen in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Test 2 Nervous system- Made up of central ns and peripheral ns Central ns is divided into the brain and spinal cord Receives, stores, processes, and interprets information Also transmits information Spinal cord can act reflexively without brain input; Meninges- are the enclosing sheathes protecting the brain and spinal cord Peripheral ns is divided into the somatic and autonomic ns Somatic – voluntary skeletal muscles and sensory; there’s afferent and efferent Autonomic- there’s sympathetic and parasympathetic; involuntary nervous system, such as heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, etc. Sympathetic gives output of energy; fight or flight Parasympathetic is opposite; lowers heart rate, ends fight or flight, etc. Brain regions 1) Hind brain- contains vital functions, like breathing and heartrate; vital and small a. Medulla- breathing, circulation and unconscious behaviors b. Pons- sleep c. Cerebellum- fine muscle movement, and balance 2) Midbrain – sensory processes a. Reticular formation- for sleep and arousal 3) Forebrain – largest and most complex region; a. Thalamus – relay center for sensory integration b. Hypothalamus – basic biological functioning: hunger, thirst, temperature, pleasure center c. Hippocampus – learning and memory d. Amygdala – emotion and aggression, fear e. Cerebrum – largest and most complex part of the human brain; responsible for sensing, thinking, learning, higher order type stuff 1. Cerebral cortex 2. Cerebral hemispheres 3. Corpus callosum 4. Left side- language, verbal processing; two parts: i. Broca’s area – speech production ii. Wernicke’s area – language comprehension 5. Right side – nonverbal; music, visual recognition, spatial relationships; *see personal application* i. Specialization is limited with these two sides ii. Both sides of brain are used for all tasks iii. Experience plays a role in this iv. Brain imaging v. Controls opposite side of body 6. Lobes of cerebral cortex a. Occipital- in the back of the head; responsible for vision b. Parietal – on top of the head; somatosensory: touch, pain, etc. c. Temporal – on side of head; auditory d. Frontal- executive and motor function; higher order function i. Phineas Gage Neuron- basic structure for transmitting, receiving, and integrating nerve impulses; makes up nervous system Glia- support and nourish nervous system; can actually transmit information a little Structures of the neuron- a. Dendrite – receive info from other neurons b. Cell body – keeps neuron alive and such c. Axon – transmits info to other neurons; highway of the nervous system; myelin sheath speeds up impulses d. Synapse- where dendrite meets axon; i. Terminal button of axon ii. Synaptic cleft iii. Receptor site of dendrite e. Action potential: Electrochemical impulse; all or none; 200 mph; strength caused by rate of impulses; i. Chemicals called neurotransmitters ii. Only some receptor sites fit certain neurotransmitters iii. Endorphins- opiates; gives runner’s high; associated with heroin iv. Serotonin – deals with sleep and arousal; associated with MDMA (ecstasy): increases serotonin, but shuts off receptor sites, blocking reabsorption, so it doesn’t go anywhere. Causes body to stop making large amounts of serotonin causing subsequent depression and messes up serotonin receptors causing depression. How can genes and the environment be told apart? Identical twins- share same exact DNA Fraternal twins-share around 50 % of genome; so do parents Grandparents share 25% Cousins share 12.5% Family studies – examine bloods relatives to see how much they resemble Schizophrenia – is more likely in the relatives of schizophrenics. Twin studies – look at identical vs fraternal More similarity in IQ between identical twins than fraternal twins Adoption studies – look at the biological parents vs the adopted parents of a child; Which is he most like? Alcoholism can be an inherited predisposition Is the best of the three studies Ch. 13 Stress Response – any circumstance that is perceived to threaten one’s well-being, thereby taxing the system; Stress can be a good thing; stress was originally meant to be an adaptive survival mechanism, but humans no longer deal with the same dangers; it is for short term physical fight or flight response; Now it is the anticipation; stress is now maladaptive to the stresses of today Lifestyle is now the main cause of death; 100 ya it was infectious diseases Biopsychosocial model – physical and psychological Ellis Anticipation Appraisal- whether or not something is perceived as stressful ABC- anticipating event, believe, consequence Anger- is not a primary emotion; one must choose to be angry; one who is angry is either frustrated or hurt. They choose to get angry about it Illogical thinking Catastrophize – make a mountain out of a mole hill Overgeneralize – take a small problem and turn it into other problems; one small characteristic means overall bad Acute/ Chronic Acute- short term to a known end Chronic- long term to an unknown end Predictable/unpredictable Unpredictable stress is worse; Control A study showed that those who feel they have control feel less stressed Stress is cumulative – you can have many minor stresses and add up to a major illness 4 major types of stress 1) Frustration - a thwarted goal 2) Conflict – 2 or more incompatible motivations 1. Approach- approach: a choice between 2 attractive goals 2. Avoidance-avoidance: a choice between 2 unattractive goals 3. Approach- avoidance: a choice about a single goal with both attractive and unattractive aspects; the back and forth is called vacillation 3) Change – having to adapt to different living circumstances There is no proof that change is inherently stressful; it is the uncertainty that causes stress Death of a spouse has a stress level of 100 Divorce has a stress level of 73 Vacation has a stress level of 13 High numbered stress factors tend to be negative and measuring change, but low level is more measuring frustration 4) Pressure – To perform Or conform Hans Selye – experimented with rats to understand stress He injected some with a stress inducing chemical, and others with a placebo; both got stressed out Developed concept General Adaptation Syndrome – describes the physiological steps to the bodies reaction to stress 1) alarm – the fight or flight stage 2) Resistance – where it plateaus; people feel that they are calming down and adapting; however, their stress levels are still high, just not rising further 3) Exhaustion – body’s resources are depleted; where disease can set in; What he didn’t know is that here, the body is attacking itself! Psychosomatic disease – one with psychological origins rather than biological; like ulcers, heart attacks, etc.; not just in your head though; high blood pressure can be stress induced, but it is not just in your head; this term is kind of becoming obsolete; Biopsychosocial; Immune response – happy people don’t get sick as often Neurogenesis – the formation of new neurons Stress decreases neurogenesis. Exercise increases neurogenesis. Type a personality – competitive, impatient, hostility; there was a weak correlation with heart attacks; however, the hostility give a strong correlation. So it is unhealthy to walk around pissed off. Yerkes Dodson curve – medium stress is optimum for productivity; too low or too high is not Learned helplessness – passive behavior from unavoidable adverse events p. 467-469
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