Note for PSYCH 380 at UMass
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Abnormal Psy Exam 3 Chapter 7 Sexual Disorders What Is Abnormal Sexual Behavior 1 If it causes harm to other people 2 Or it causes an individual to experience persistent or recurrent distress or impairment in important areas of functioning Paraphilias disorders in which an individual has recurrent intense sexually arousing fantasies sexual urges or behaviors involving 1 nonhuman objects 2 children or other nonconsenting persons or 3 the suffering or humiliation of oneself or a partner they are unable to feel sexual gratification unless the target of desire is present in some form Pedophilia a paraphilia in which an adult 16 years or over has uncontrollable sexual urges toward sexually immature children Hebephilia adults who have uncontrollable urges to have sexual relations with adolescents Ephebophilia specifically attracted to male adolescents Types I Situational molesters during a stressful time feel distress after the incident I Preference molesters ingrained into personality and lifestyle sees nothing wrong with own behavior I Child rapists violent child abuser lowering level of testosterone surgery castration or removal of the testes behavioral techniques focus on coping management focus on personal value 0 Exhibitionism involving the exposure of genitals to a stranger ltCovert conditioninggt a behavioral method in which the client imagines a great deal of shame when his acquaintances observe him engaging in his exhibitionistic behaviors 0 Fetish is a strong recurrent sexual attraction to a nonliving object Fetishism preoccupied with an object and become dependent on this object for achieving sexual gratification actually preferring it over sexual intimacy with a partner 0 Partialism interested solely in sexual gratification from a specific body part such as feet 0 Orgasmic reconditioning and individual is instructed to arouse himself with a fantasy of the unacceptable object then masturbate while looking at an appropriate sexual stimulus o Frotteurism sexual urges of rubbing against or fondling another person usually a stranger o Masochism achieving sexual gratification by having painful stimulation Sadism achieving sexual gratification by delivering pain on another person Sadomasochist people who derive sexual pleasure from both inflicting and receiving pain 0 Transvestic fetishism a man has an uncontrollable urge to wear a woman s clothes as his primary means of achieving sexual gratification o Voyeurism individual has a compulsion to derive sexual gratification from observing the nudity or sexual activity of others who are unaware of being watch Theories amp treatment of paraphilias misprints of the quotlovemapquot which formed early in life late childhood years happen through learning Bio medically reduce the individual s sexual desire Psysoci behavioral and congnitvebehavioral Gender Identity the individual s selfperception as a male or female Gender role a person s behaviors and attitudes that indicative of maleness or femaleness in one s society Sexual orientation the degree to which a person is erotically attracted to members of the same or opposite sex Gender Identity Disorders A condition involving a discrepancy between an individual s assigned sex and the person s gender identity Usually start distress over assigned sex before reaching 4 years old Sexual Dysfunctions abnormality in an individual s sexual responsiveness and reactions Characteristics 0 Sexual dysfunctions are defined by the individual often in terms of an intimate relationship 0 Sometimes are signs or symptoms of problems in a person s life that do not directly pertain to sexuality 0 Can be physically as well as psychologically based Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder an abnormally low level of interest in sexual activity Sexual Aversion Disorder an active dislike and avoidance of genital contact with a sexual partner Female sexual arousal Disorder the persistent or recurrent inability to attain or maintain the normal lubricationswelling response of sexual excitement during sexual activity Male Erectile Disorder the recurrent partial or complete failure to attain or maintain an erection during sexual activity Female Orgasmic disorder inability to achieve orgasm or a distressing delay in the achievement of orgasm Male Orgasmic Disorder inhibited male orgasm Premature Ejaculation reaches orgasm in a sexual encounter long before he wishes to perhaps even prior to penetration Sexual pain disorder dyspareunia affects both males and females involves genital pain before during or after sexual intercourse vaginismus affects only females involuntary spasms of the outer muscles of the vagina Chapter 8 Mood Disorders Dysphoria sadness Euphoria feelings of elation the quotmanicquot Episode a timelimited period during which specific intense symptoms of disorder are evident Depressive disorders Major depressive disorder acute but timelimited periods of depressive symptoms for most of the time suring a 2week period experiences at least five symptoms of Major depressive episode Dysthymic disorder more chronic but less severe depression Melancholic features lose interest in most activities or find it difficult to react to events in their lives that would customarily bring pleasure Seasonal pattern develop a depressive episode at about the same time each year usually for 2 months during the fall or winter Disorders involving alternations in mood o Bipolar disorder involves an intense and very disruptive experience of extreme elation or euphoria possibly alternating with major depressive episodes Manic episode a fullblown expression of extreme symptoms involving abnormally heightened levels of thinking behavior and emotionality that cause impairment in social or occupational functioning a period of abnormally and persistently elevated expansive or irritable mood lasting at least 1 week Mixed episode a period lasting at least a week in which the symptoms of both a manic episode and a major depressive episode occur together in rapidly alternating fashion 0 Cyclothymic disorder involves alternations between dysphoria and briefer less intense and less disruptive states of euphoria called hypomanic episodes lasts a minimum of 2 years 1 year in children and adolescents o Bipolar disorder a clinical course in which the individual experiences one or more manic episodes with the possibility though not nesscessity of having one or more major depressive episodes 0 Bipolar disorder the individual has had one or more major depressive episodes and at least one hypomanic episode but have never experienced a fullblown manic episode Rapid cyclers individuals with bipolar that have between 4 and 8 mood episodes within the course of a single year less than 15 Theories amp treatments of mood disorders Biological perspectives genetics biochemical factors psychological perspectives psychodynamic behavioral cognitive cognitive triad cognitive distortions sociocultural amp interpersonal perspectives biological treatment psychological treatment Suicide Who commits suicide Biological perspective psychological perspective sociocultural perspective assessment amp treatment of suicidality suicidal intent suicidal lethality Chapter 9 Schizophrenia amp Other Psvchotic Disorders Schizophrenia A disorder with a range of symptoms involving disturbances in content of thought form of thought perception affect sense of self motivation behavior and interpersonal functioning The fundamental features 1 Association Thought disorder as might be evident through rambling and incoherent speech 2 Affect Disorder of the experience and expression of emotion for example inappropriate laughter in a sad situation 3 Ambivalence The inability to make or follow through on decisions 4 Autism The tendency to maintain an idiosyncratic style of egocentric thought and behavior 0 Prodromal phase a period prior to the active phase during which the individual shows progressive deterioration in social and interpersonal functioning social withdrawal inability to work productively poor grooming unusual beliefs decreased energy and initiative 0 Active phase a period of 6 months marked with symptoms such as delusions hallucinations disorganized speech disturbed behavior and negative symptoms speechlessness or lack of initiative 0 Residual phase continuing indications of disturbance similar to the behaviors of the prodromal phase Symptoms o Delusions disturbance of thought content deeply entrenched false beliefs 0 Hallucinations disturbance of perception o Disorganized Speech disturbance of thinking language and communication 0 Disturbed behavior 0 Negative Symptoms affective flatteningunresponsive motionless no reaction minimal eye contact alogia loss of words lack of responsiveness in conversation avolition lack of initiative and unwillingness to act 0 Amhedonia a loss of interest in or ability to experience pleasure from activities that most people find appealing Types I Catatonic type abnormalities of movement when the prominent symptom in a person with schizophrenia is bizarre motor behaviors or excessive purposeless motor activity I Disorganized type disturbed or flat affect a combination of symptoms including disorganized speech disturbed behavior and flat or inappropriate affect Delusions and hallucinations are lack of coherent theme I Paranoid type systematic bizarre delusions preoccupied with one or more bizarre delusions or have auditory hallucinations related to a theme of being persecuted or harassed but without disorganized speech or disturbed behavior I Undifferentiated type symptoms are mixed I Residual type not delusional hallucinating incoherent or disorganized but might retain some symptoms such as emotional dullness social withdrawal eccentric behavior or illogical thinking men 1825 women25mid 30s women paranoid mennegative symptoms 0 Brief Psychotic Disorder a sudden onset of psychotic symptoms that lasts less than a month often reactive appearing after a stressful event or set of events 0 Schizophreniform Disorder active symptoms last from 1 to 6 months 0 Schizoaffective Disorder applies to people who experience either a major depressive episode a manic episode or a mixed episode at the same time that they meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia o Delusional Disorders a single striking psychotic symptoman organized system of nonbizarre false beliefs 0 Shared Psychotic Disorder one or more people develop a delusional system as a result of a close relationship with a psychotic person who is delusional folie a deux folly of two ANHEDONIC an inability to experience pleasure from normally pleasurable life events such as eating exercise social interaction or sexual activities HEBEPHRENIC disorganized disorder including schizophasia sometimes Theories amp treatment of schizophrenia Biological perspectives dopamine hypothesis genetic explanations biological stressors amp vulnerability psychological perspective sociocultural perspective expressed emotion biological treatments neuroleptics tardive dyskinesia psychological treatments sociocultural treatments the biopsychosocial perspective
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