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Abnormal Psych 2/3 Notes

by: Cali Hagen

Abnormal Psych 2/3 Notes PSYCH 351

Cali Hagen

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About this Document

Covers medication of the the behavioral model and the Psychodynamic model
Abnormal Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology, abnormal
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cali Hagen on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 351 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Magyar-Moe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
 Medication o Effective “cure” for most mental disorders o A variety of medication are given to people with various mental disorders o Research studies have found symptom relief among people who take certain medications  Problems with relying on medications o Medications may provide some relief by affecting some symptoms but may not address  (or may cover up) the underlying causes of the problem. o Is it the medication or the expectation about the medicine that affects one's behavior (i.e.,  the placebo effect)? o It is an error in logic to assume that bodily changes following drug treatment implies that  the problem was caused by underlying biological factors (i.e., "treatment­etiology  fallacy").   Evidence shows that biochemical changes often occur because of environmental  forces.  Error in logic that because biological changes are assumed to be caused by  biological forces  Exogenous­outside forces/life stressors/external circumstances  Endogenous­genetically based/inherited o Medications may have adverse side effects, and the long­term effect of some medications is unknown o People may develop dependence on external forms of treatment, rather than developing  internal coping strategies o Medication therapy may be one tool in the treatment of some mental disorders but is not  appropriate for all disorders or for all people.  Psychodynamic (Psychoanalytic) Model o Source­ early childhood experiences, trauma/anxiety o Treatment­ dream analysis, free association, transference  Locating unconscious conflict from early child hood  Resolving the problem and reintegrating the personality  Reprocess/reinterpret the experience o Assessment – indirect data, oral self­reports o 3 components of personality  Not much of this theory is used anymore  Id­ pleasure principle  Ego – reality principle  Super ego – seeks perfection  Anxiety occurs when there are conflicts between the id, ego, and superego ­ Realistic anxiety­ real danger in the environment (ego) ­ Moralistic anxiety – when a person does not live up to his/her own moral standards (superego) ­ Neurotic anxiety – when id impulses cannot be controlled by the ego  Ego compensates by using defense mechanisms  Defense Mechanisms o Repression  Blocking of forbidden or dangerous desires and thoughts to keep them from  entering one’s consciousness.   Example: witness a murder but force it out of consciousness b/c of trauma of the  event o Reaction Formation  Repression of dangerous impulses, followed by converting them to their direct  opposite.   Example: person with murderous tendencies becomes a surgeon and saves lives o Projection  Ridding oneself of threatening desires or thoughts by attributing them to others.   Example: accuse spouse of cheating when you are actually thinking of cheating o Displacement  Directing an emotion, such as hostility or anxiety, toward a substitute target.   Example: a man is angry at his spouse. The anger builds and he goes off on his  children who have done nothing wrong, instead of confronting his wife. o Rationalization  Explaining one’s behavior by giving well­thought­out and socially acceptable  reasons that do not happen to be the real ones.   Example: I only drink at night so I can fall asleep since I have to be up early for  work in the morning. o Regression  A retreat to an earlier developmental level that demands less mature responses  and aspirations.  Example: A prestigious college basketball coach goes to a college party and  drinks and socializes with the students there.  Personality develops through five psychosexual stages o Oral – helplessness, obesity, chronic smoking, alcoholism, manipulative, exploitive in  interpersonal relations o Anal ­  o Phallic o Latency o Genital  Analytic therapy process o Goal is to uncover the unconscious material so the client has insight into his/her problems o Unburdening of thoughts/feelings to sympathetic listener (analyst)  They will talk about what they need to talk about o Positive transference  They are going to like the analyst because they listen o Exploration of emotion­laden thoughts and experiences  Analyst pushes to talk about the problems o Negative transference  They don’t like the analyst because they are poking o Reconstruction and re­experiencing of crucial childhood experiences  See the connections from the past o Transference interpreted with help of analyst  Show the client the connections   When an interpretation is offered it is almost always a psychoanalytic approach o Reprocessing of crucial situations and converting new insights into the personality o Clinical example – bullying and punching the wall; paranoia  Criticisms o Lacking empirical validation o Depreciates female sexuality and legitimize male sexuality o Cannot be applied to a wide range of disorders  Only tends to apply to well­educated, middle, and upper­class people with  anxiety disorders ­ Not good for those with speech problems ­ Not good for treating psychoses ­ Not good for treating immediate problems  Pieces of classic psychoanalytic theory that many agree are useful/reasonable o Resistance in therapy o Defense mechanisms  Repression – this is a major reason why those who experience trauma are  encouraged to talk about it immediately after the event o Role of past experiences in present behaviors/beliefs  Behavioral Model o Source – external: learning maladaptive responses or not acquiring appropriate responses o Treatment – direct modification of the problem behavior: analysis of the environmental  factors controlling the behavior and alteration of the contingencies o Assessment – observable, objective data, overt behaviors


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