Abnormal Psych 2/3 Notes
Abnormal Psych 2/3 Notes PSYCH 351
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cali Hagen on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 351 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Magyar-Moe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Medication o Effective “cure” for most mental disorders o A variety of medication are given to people with various mental disorders o Research studies have found symptom relief among people who take certain medications Problems with relying on medications o Medications may provide some relief by affecting some symptoms but may not address (or may cover up) the underlying causes of the problem. o Is it the medication or the expectation about the medicine that affects one's behavior (i.e., the placebo effect)? o It is an error in logic to assume that bodily changes following drug treatment implies that the problem was caused by underlying biological factors (i.e., "treatmentetiology fallacy"). Evidence shows that biochemical changes often occur because of environmental forces. Error in logic that because biological changes are assumed to be caused by biological forces Exogenousoutside forces/life stressors/external circumstances Endogenousgenetically based/inherited o Medications may have adverse side effects, and the longterm effect of some medications is unknown o People may develop dependence on external forms of treatment, rather than developing internal coping strategies o Medication therapy may be one tool in the treatment of some mental disorders but is not appropriate for all disorders or for all people. Psychodynamic (Psychoanalytic) Model o Source early childhood experiences, trauma/anxiety o Treatment dream analysis, free association, transference Locating unconscious conflict from early child hood Resolving the problem and reintegrating the personality Reprocess/reinterpret the experience o Assessment – indirect data, oral selfreports o 3 components of personality Not much of this theory is used anymore Id pleasure principle Ego – reality principle Super ego – seeks perfection Anxiety occurs when there are conflicts between the id, ego, and superego Realistic anxiety real danger in the environment (ego) Moralistic anxiety – when a person does not live up to his/her own moral standards (superego) Neurotic anxiety – when id impulses cannot be controlled by the ego Ego compensates by using defense mechanisms Defense Mechanisms o Repression Blocking of forbidden or dangerous desires and thoughts to keep them from entering one’s consciousness. Example: witness a murder but force it out of consciousness b/c of trauma of the event o Reaction Formation Repression of dangerous impulses, followed by converting them to their direct opposite. Example: person with murderous tendencies becomes a surgeon and saves lives o Projection Ridding oneself of threatening desires or thoughts by attributing them to others. Example: accuse spouse of cheating when you are actually thinking of cheating o Displacement Directing an emotion, such as hostility or anxiety, toward a substitute target. Example: a man is angry at his spouse. The anger builds and he goes off on his children who have done nothing wrong, instead of confronting his wife. o Rationalization Explaining one’s behavior by giving wellthoughtout and socially acceptable reasons that do not happen to be the real ones. Example: I only drink at night so I can fall asleep since I have to be up early for work in the morning. o Regression A retreat to an earlier developmental level that demands less mature responses and aspirations. Example: A prestigious college basketball coach goes to a college party and drinks and socializes with the students there. Personality develops through five psychosexual stages o Oral – helplessness, obesity, chronic smoking, alcoholism, manipulative, exploitive in interpersonal relations o Anal o Phallic o Latency o Genital Analytic therapy process o Goal is to uncover the unconscious material so the client has insight into his/her problems o Unburdening of thoughts/feelings to sympathetic listener (analyst) They will talk about what they need to talk about o Positive transference They are going to like the analyst because they listen o Exploration of emotionladen thoughts and experiences Analyst pushes to talk about the problems o Negative transference They don’t like the analyst because they are poking o Reconstruction and reexperiencing of crucial childhood experiences See the connections from the past o Transference interpreted with help of analyst Show the client the connections When an interpretation is offered it is almost always a psychoanalytic approach o Reprocessing of crucial situations and converting new insights into the personality o Clinical example – bullying and punching the wall; paranoia Criticisms o Lacking empirical validation o Depreciates female sexuality and legitimize male sexuality o Cannot be applied to a wide range of disorders Only tends to apply to welleducated, middle, and upperclass people with anxiety disorders Not good for those with speech problems Not good for treating psychoses Not good for treating immediate problems Pieces of classic psychoanalytic theory that many agree are useful/reasonable o Resistance in therapy o Defense mechanisms Repression – this is a major reason why those who experience trauma are encouraged to talk about it immediately after the event o Role of past experiences in present behaviors/beliefs Behavioral Model o Source – external: learning maladaptive responses or not acquiring appropriate responses o Treatment – direct modification of the problem behavior: analysis of the environmental factors controlling the behavior and alteration of the contingencies o Assessment – observable, objective data, overt behaviors
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