Microbiology Week 5 Notes
Microbiology Week 5 Notes MICR 3050
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Toni Franken on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MICR 3050 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Whitehead in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Microbiology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
MICR 3050 – Notes Set 9, 02/01/2016 Dr. Whitehead, Clemson University Diseases and Various Material Review Diseases: Tuberculosis: o Causative agent: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bacterium o General Characteristics: Rod shape (bacilli); acid fast (gram staining will not be successful). Force dye in with phenol and heat, etc. o Route of Transmission: Spreads from person to person air born (coughing/sneezing, etc.). Some reports of human to animal transfer (examples of zookeepers getting TB or animals getting TB from their animal/human counterparts) o Characteristic Symptoms: Coughing (biggest one), can have some chest pain, coughing up blood and sputum. Tends to cause weight loss/wasting. Used to be called consumption due to the loss of body weight. Suggested that the legend of vampires got started due to tuberculosis. (wakefulness at night, pale appearance). Bubonic Plague: o Causative Agent: Yersinia pestis. Bacterium. o General Characteristics: Rod shape, gram negative. o Route of Transmission: Spread through rodents or arthropods (insects). Considered a zoonotic disease (from animals to people). Considered a vector borne infection get it from being bitten by a bug or an arthropod. Typically the flea will bite the rodent, then the flea will bite you, and spread to the human. Human cases in the US tend to correlate with the number or prairie dog cases. o Characteristic Symptoms: Bubos (swollen lymph nodes), rest of symptoms are very flulike. Less fatal than many other types of the plague. Fever, headaches, chills. Tetanus: o Causative Agent: Clostridium tetani. Bacterium o General Characteristics: Rod shape, gram positive, make endospores to survive stressful environments. o Route of Transmission: Often by getting cut or lacerated by a rusty piece of metal – due to endospores persisting in the environment. The endospores must come into contact with a wound, or a breach in skin. Can be picked up in manure, dust, soil, and more. o Symptoms: Muscle spasms (including in the jaw – lockjaw), muscle stiffness, neurological issues, seizures, trouble swallowing, fast heart rate, high blood pressure, tends to be fairly fatal. Vaccination is very important. Pertussis: Whooping Cough o Causative Agent: Bordetella pertussis. Bacterium. o General Characteristics: Coccobacillus. Gram negative. o Route of transmission: Airborne – person to person. Coughing/sneezing, etc. o Symptoms: Coughing, coldlike symptoms during the first week or two. After the first week or two, the whooping sound (severe cough) develops in some infected individuals. Can be incredibly forceful – people may pass out, vomit, or crack ribs from coughing so hard. The bacteria are all inside the upper part of respiratory tract where they destroy cilia and cannot be cleared by the body coughing. The cough is so hard, the lungs almost collapse on themselves. Sometimes referred to as the 100 days cough (can go on for 10 weeks). Smallpox: The only infectious agent we have managed to eradicate. To our knowledge, the only smallpox that exists on earth is in vials in labs. Last known outbreak was in the 1970s. Biggest concern is bioterrorism. o Causative Agent: Variola virus o General Characteristics: A doublestranded DNA virus – egg shaped (ovoid). o Route of transmission: Person to person – airborne. No hosts outside of the human population – ONLY humans can carry it, no insects or animals. Must have contact with bodily fluids. Facetoface transmission is possible, but it is harder than other bacteria. Person to person contact must be prolonged , so was usually seen within families. Not very stable in the environment. Biggest concern with bioterrorism is the fact that almost no one on earth is vaccinated or protected against smallpox today. o Symptoms: Pox – blisters are filled with fluid that has a very high level of viral particles in it. Rash starts in the mouth. Flulike symptoms. Rash spreads to the rest of the body – fluidfilled blisters form, then harden and scab over. You are contagious from the moment the first blisters appear in the mouth, and continues until the last scab falls off – a period of 4 5 weeks. Rabies: o Causative Agent: Rabies Virus o General Characteristics: RNA – bullet shaped (somewhat of a rod shaped, but one end is often flat, the other curved.) o Route of Transmission: Animals (particularly saliva – bites). Don’t tend to see humanhuman transmission. o Characteristic Symptoms: Starts with flulike symptoms. Then, the neurological symptoms appear. Confusion, agitation, hallucinations, insomnia. Official mortality is 100%. There are a few random cases of people that have survived after symptoms have presented (most have been young females – teenagers). Suggested that toxoplasmic ghondi would be a zombie agent, or the rabies virus. Dilution: Remember, you can only prepare plates with 30 – 300 colonies. 10^1: CFUs – TNTC 10^2: CFUs – TNTC 10^3: CFUs – TNTC 10^4: CFUs – 139 (only one that can be used) 10^5: CFUs – 11 10^6: CFUs – 2 Know that you have 10^4, so 139 colonies. You just write 139 x 10^4 = 1.39 x 10^6 cells/mL – this is the answer. On the exam MAKE SURE YOU HAVE A COUNTABLE PLATE. If you do not have one, you CANNOT calculate. (note – worksheet asks if you should buy stock. You should not. 1.39 x 10^6 is greater than 1 x 10^6.) 2.3 x 10^8 CFUs/ml – what version is between 30 – 300? Need to get to the plate that will get you to 230 colonies. (2.3 x 10^2). 8 2 = 6. Need to do a 10^6 dilution. However, you’d th actually want to plate the 10^5, due to the 2300 cells/mL, through which 1/10 would give you the 230 cells you need. What is a 1 to 10 dilution? A 1 to 10 dilution means that you are putting 1 unit of volume of whatever you’re diluting into a total of 10 mL (so, added to 9mL). If you’re doing a ¼ dilution, and you’re making 16 mL of solution, cross multiply to see how much you need to make. (1/4 x x/16) = 4x = 16. x = 4 mL of solution added to 12 mL of dilution fluid. Prokaryotic species: E. coli is a species of bacterium. You can have many many specific designations within the species. A strain is a group of bacterial culture that originated from an original cell. Species is a group of strains that are more like each other than other strains. Pour plating – do a dilution series, and add one of the dilutions to soft agar and pour the whole thing into a plate.
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