BioL 190 week 2
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Catherine walbrecher on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 190 at Towson University taught by preeti shah in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for health professions in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Unit 1 DNA 1 Nucleotide a The repeating subunit of DNA b Parts i Phosphate group P04 H SugarDeoxynbose iii Base ACGT 2 Bases a Four bases in DNA i Adenine amp Guanine Purines big base 2 ring structure ii Thymine amp Cytosine Pyrimidines small bases 1 ring structure iii The coded info of DNA is held in the sequences of bases 3 DNA structure a Read 5 3 i 5 end free P04 ii 3 end OH end free sugar b Phosphodiester Bond i 3 5 sugar phosphate bond ii Make up backbone od DNA iii Backbone directly held together by strong e sharing COVAENT bonds 4 Complementary base pairing a This is how strands connect to for DNA b Pairs i A always w T ii G always w C c Bonds i Bases held together by HYDROGEN bonds ii A to T two bonds iii G to C three bonds iv Big bases pair with small bases to form a constant 2nm diameter S Hershey Chase experiment a Used a bacterial virus called T2 phage bacteriophage i Consist of only two molecules protein and DNA ii Grew T2 with Ecoi b Steps i Made radioactive DNA in one and Radioactive Protein in the other ii Mixed radioactive labeled phages with bacteria Phages infected bacteria iii Agitated cultures in a blender to separate phages from cell iv Centrifuged the so bacteria formed a pellet v Measure radioactivity in pellet and liquid c Results i Radioactivity in pellets of the DNA ii Radioactivity found in liquid of the protein iii Conclusion since the radioactive phosphorus was detected in bacterial cells pellet it suggests that DNA of the phage was internalized into the cells meaning the DNA in the genetic material 6 Important People and their discoveries a Rosalind amp Maurice Wilkins i Xray diffraction of DNA ii Discovered image of diffraction pattern of DNA iii made measurements of the pattern iv Double helix shapelt 2nm width b Erin Chargaff chemical analysis of DNA i Amounts of A were equal to T and amounts of G are equal to C ii The order of the bases differed across samples iii Proportions of AT GC differed across samples 7 Watson and Crick s con rmations 2 strands in Helix Strands are anti parallel 5 3 3 5 Bases face each other inside Helix Hbonding in complementary pairs Orientation od bases maximized number of Hbonds f Manner of replication based on complementarity 8 CON ROL DNA controls cell structurefunction Transcription and Translation a codes directly for all proteins in cell b a cells PROTEOME determines ce makeup and what jobs it can do eg disease white blood cell contract muscle cell c More than 200 types of cells in multicellular organism eg a human determine structure and function of whole body 9 HEREDITY complete copy of genetic information physically passed from one generation to the next during reproduction Replication of DNA a DNA must be copied replicated b Copy passed to each daughter cell during division of 1 cell c DNA copies passed on to offspring from 2 parents in sexual reproduction 10 DNA replication Heredity function 1 parent ce makes 2 genetically identical daughter cells Must copy cells DNA i 2 copies per daughter ce ii copied during 5 phase of cell cycle iii cell division delivers copies to daughter cells c AKA synthesis i Synthesis of new polynucleotide chains 09069 O39QJ d Semiconservative i One half of the parent cell is conserved in the daughter cell e Process i Helicase enzyme unwinds and separates DNA strands ii DNA polymerase enzyme adds nucleotides on the the 3 end of the parent strand A daughter strand can only grow in 5 3 orientation iii Leading strand is formed in a continuous 5 3 manner iv the lagging strand is made in 5 3 fragments these fragments are ligated together by DNA ligaseenzyme and proofread by DNA polymerase enzyme
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