Geology 110 - Chapter 3 Lecture Notes
Geology 110 - Chapter 3 Lecture Notes 41072 - GLG 110 - C
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Watts on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 41072 - GLG 110 - C at Missouri State University taught by Douglas R Gouzie in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Principles of Geology in Geography at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Geology- 1/21/16 i. Elements a. The basic building blocks of nature ii. Idealized Structure of an Atom a. Protons- charge +1 b. Neutrons- charge 0 c. Electrons- charge -1 iii. Isotopes a. Atoms that have different numbers of neutrons (all have the same number of protons) iv. Ions a. Atoms that have lost or gained electrons compared with the normal number v. Cations a. Lost one or more negative electrons, so they have a net POSITIVE charge vi. Anions a. Gained one or more negative electrons, so they have a net NEGATIVE charge b. “a negative ION” vii. Chemical Bonding a. Formation of a compound by combining two or more elements viii. Ionic Bonding a. Atoms gain or lose outermost (valence) electrons to form ions b. Ionic compounds consists of an orderly arrangement or oppositely charged ions ix. Covalent Bonding a. Atoms share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality b. Covalent compounds are generally stronger than ionic bonds c. Both ionic and covalent bonds typically occur in the same compound (bonds are seldom 100% ionic or covalent in character) x. Metallic Bonding (Weakest of all bonds) a. Valence electrons are free to migrate among atoms xi. Carbonate Radical Anion: CO3^-2 a. Consists of one carbon ion with charge of +4 and 3 b. Oxygen ions, each with a charge or -2 or a total of -6 c. Add them up: +4 added to -6 = -2 for the total charge d. This radical then combines with cations to form compounds (called minerals if natural) xii. Calcite= CaCO3 xiii. Mineral a. Naturally occurring b. Inorganic solid c. Ordered internal molecular structure d. Define chemical composition xiv. Physical properties of minerals a. Luster b. Streak c. Hardness d. Crystal from e. Cleavage f. Fracture g. Specific gravity h. Other (taste, smell, magnetism) xv. Mohs’ Scale of Hardness a. Diamond (10) hardest b. Corundum (9) c. Topaz (8) d. Quartz (7) **important** e. Orthoslase (6) f. Apartite (5) g. Fluorite (4) h. Calcite (3) i. Gypsum (2) j. Talc (1) weakest xvi. Mineral Groups a. Nearly 4,000 minerals have been identified on Earth b. Rock-forming minerals i. Common minerals that make up most of the rocks on Earths crust xvii. MOST ABUNDANT ELEMENTS IN EARTH’S CRUST a. Oxygen- O (46.6) b. Silicon- Si (27.7) c. Aluminum- Al (8.1) d. Iron- Fe (5.0) e. Total 87.4% xviii.
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