Abnormal Psych 2/8 Notes
Abnormal Psych 2/8 Notes PSYCH 351
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cali Hagen on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 351 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Magyar-Moe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
2/8 Psychoanalytic Model (Cont’d) o Object relations or interpersonal therapy o Relationship between past experiences to current situations are valid throughout all models Behavioral Model (Learning) o Source – external: learning maladaptive responses or not acquiring appropriate responses o Treatment – direct modification of the problem behavior Analysis of the environmental factors controlling the behavior and alteration of the contingencies o Assessment – observable, objective data, overt behaviors o Types of learning Classical conditioning – Ivan Pavlov Dogs and salivation UCS (unconditioned stimulus) that leads to a UCR (unconditioned response) Neutral stimulus (NS) becomes the conditioned stimulus (CS) causes a conditioned response (CR) Ex. Baby Albert and fear (CR) of white fluffy (CS) things o Used loud noise as the UCS and fear as UCR Treatment – systematic desensitization, exposure (flooding plus response prevention), implosion (imaginary), aversive conditioning o Systematic desensitization – can’t feel opposite (relaxation and anxiety) feelings, learning how to stay relaxed when going through the stages (hierarchy) of the fear o Exposure – the fear is irrational, jump right to the thing they are most afraid of o Implosion – exposure therapy in imaginary only o Aversive conditioning – create a negative aversion to something positive in their life (medication to make a person throw up when alcohol enters system – alcoholism) Ex. Once you smoke you have to smoke the whole pack, or three at once, quitting smoking Changing associations Operant conditioning – Edward Thorndike, B.F. Skinner Behaviors are learned and controlled by reinforcers Negative = take away something Positive = add something Positive and negative reinforcers o Increase the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated Positive and negative punishment o Decrease the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated Ex. Selfinjurious behavior can be developed and maintained through reinforcement o Cutting – for some people this brings attention, maybe even hospitalization The attention and care feels good and result is that they will likely engage in that behavior again because of the positive reinforcement o Drinking and substance abuse – may be due to negative reinforcement The escape from a painful reality increases the likelihood of drinking again in the future Treatments o Token economies – getting stars for good behavior, so many stars get a prize o Punishment – take away something wanted o Reinforcing other more appropriate behaviors Observational learning – Albert Bandura A person can learn new behaviors by watching other people do them AKA = vicarious conditioning or modeling Ex. Mom has intense fear of snakes o Son sees this as he is growing up and ends up fearing snakes himself Can counter imitate the models Treatment – providing models who perform appropriate behaviors or show appropriate responses in the situation that produces fear/anxiety for the client o Usually on kids o Adults need other or combined methods Strengths o includes the role of external forces on behavior o can monitor progress easily – it is all about behavior that we can directly observe Criticisms o Neglects inner determinants of behavior o Does not attend to human values = mechanistic Cognitive o Source – internal: learned pattern of irrational or negative selfstatements o Treatment – understanding relationship between selfstatements and problem behavior; modification of internal dialogue o Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis Ellis – “Irrational Beliefs” Beck – “Dysfunctional Automatic Thoughts” o Conscious thought mediates our emotions and behaviors in response to a stimulus o Change behavior and emotions need to modify our thoughts o Psychopathology develops due to irrational thinking and maladaptive thoughts o The way we interpret events and situations, determines how we react and whether or not problems or symptoms of pathology develop o ABC theory A – activating event Breakup B – beliefs/thoughts Thoughts that caused the sadness C – consequence Sadness Change the beliefs then you change the consequences Accept our thoughts, but refute others – talk to yourself like you are your own best friend o Beck’s 3 levels Level 1 = Voluntary thoughts Easiest to access and control Cognitions at this level are not very stable Level 2 = automatic thoughts Occur spontaneously Triggered by circumstances Fall between an event and a person’s reaction to the event Work off the level 3 thoughts – readily accepted Level 3 = underlying assumptions or core beliefs About the self and the world o Cognitions at this level are stable and almost always outside our awareness o Beck’s theory of depression Depressive triad Negative view of self, world, and the future I’m worthless, everything bad happens to me, nothing is ever going to get better Described a number of distortions in thinking that those who have various psychological disorders experience Arbitrary inference Selective abstraction Overgeneralization Magnification and exaggeration Personalization Polarized thinking o Ellis Psychological problems are due to irrational thought patterns that stem from an individual’s belief system The irrational thoughts are conditioned during childhood and then we reinforce them in ourselves through our repetitive selftalk “should, musts, and oughts” are clues to irrational, rigidly held beliefs Treatment Help client see links between thoughts, behaviors, and feelings Work to identify automatic and irrational thoughts Examine the evidence for and against these thoughts Find alternative ways of thinking/more adaptive conclusions RET – Rational Emotive Therapy o Uses Socratic style debate to discuss/refute/change irrational beliefs – lots of confrontation o Becks’ is more of a mutual discovery process – very structured o Many empirically supported treatments are cognitive in nature o Strengths Includes the role of external forces on thoughts/behavior/emotions Can monitor progress fairly easily Fairly concrete and understandable Insight into problems is not a requirement o Criticisms Doesn’t consider the person as a whole – people and behavior is the result of more than just thoughts and beliefs – mechanistic view of humans Therapist plays an authoritative role – more of a teacher or expert can be intimidation for clients, therapist may not be correct If incorrectly applied, many serve as a means to blame the individual for his/her problems
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