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Abnormal Psych 2/8 Notes

by: Cali Hagen

Abnormal Psych 2/8 Notes PSYCH 351

Cali Hagen

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About this Document

Covers the Behavioral (Learning) model and Cognitive model
Abnormal Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology, abnormal
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cali Hagen on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 351 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Magyar-Moe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
2/8  Psychoanalytic Model (Cont’d) o Object relations or interpersonal therapy o Relationship between past experiences to current situations are valid throughout all  models  Behavioral Model (Learning) o Source – external: learning maladaptive responses or not acquiring appropriate responses o Treatment – direct modification of the problem behavior  Analysis of the environmental factors controlling the behavior and alteration of  the contingencies o Assessment – observable, objective data, overt behaviors o Types of learning   Classical conditioning – Ivan Pavlov  Dogs and salivation  UCS (unconditioned stimulus) that leads to a UCR (unconditioned  response)  Neutral stimulus (NS) becomes the conditioned stimulus (CS) causes a  conditioned response (CR)  Ex. Baby Albert and fear (CR) of white fluffy (CS) things o Used loud noise as the UCS and fear as UCR  Treatment – systematic desensitization, exposure (flooding plus response prevention), implosion (imaginary), aversive conditioning o Systematic desensitization – can’t feel opposite (relaxation and  anxiety) feelings, learning how to stay relaxed when going  through the stages (hierarchy) of the fear o Exposure – the fear is irrational, jump right to the thing they are  most afraid of o Implosion – exposure therapy in imaginary only o Aversive conditioning – create a negative aversion to something  positive in their life (medication to make a person throw up  when alcohol enters system – alcoholism)   Ex. Once you smoke you have to smoke the whole pack, or three at once, quitting smoking  Changing associations  Operant conditioning – Edward Thorndike, B.F. Skinner  Behaviors are learned and controlled by reinforcers   Negative = take away something  Positive = add something  Positive and negative reinforcers o Increase the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated  Positive and negative punishment o Decrease the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated  Ex. Self­injurious behavior can be developed and maintained through  reinforcement  o Cutting – for some people this brings attention, maybe even  hospitalization  The attention and care feels good and result is that they  will likely engage in that behavior again because of the  positive reinforcement o Drinking and substance abuse – may be due to negative  reinforcement  The escape from a painful reality increases the  likelihood of drinking again in the future  Treatments  o Token economies – getting stars for good behavior, so many  stars get a prize o Punishment – take away something wanted o Reinforcing other more appropriate behaviors   Observational learning – Albert Bandura  A person can learn new behaviors by watching other people do them  AKA = vicarious conditioning or modeling  Ex. Mom has intense fear of snakes o Son sees this as he is growing up and ends up fearing snakes  himself  Can counter imitate the models   Treatment – providing models who perform appropriate behaviors or  show appropriate responses in the situation that produces fear/anxiety for the client o Usually on kids o Adults need other or combined methods  Strengths o includes the role of external forces on behavior o can monitor progress easily – it is all about behavior that we can  directly observe  Criticisms o Neglects inner determinants of behavior o Does not attend to human values = mechanistic  Cognitive o Source – internal: learned pattern of irrational or negative self­statements o Treatment – understanding relationship between self­statements and problem behavior;  modification of internal dialogue o Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis  Ellis – “Irrational Beliefs”  Beck – “Dysfunctional Automatic Thoughts” o Conscious thought mediates our emotions and behaviors in response to a stimulus o Change behavior and emotions need to modify our thoughts o Psychopathology develops due to irrational thinking and maladaptive thoughts o The way we interpret events and situations, determines how we react and whether or not  problems or symptoms of pathology develop o ABC theory  A – activating event  Breakup   B – beliefs/thoughts  Thoughts that caused the sadness  C – consequence  Sadness  Change the beliefs then you change the consequences  Accept our thoughts, but refute others – talk to yourself like you are your own  best friend o Beck’s 3 levels  Level 1 = Voluntary thoughts  Easiest to access and control   Cognitions at this level are not very stable  Level 2 = automatic thoughts  Occur spontaneously  Triggered by circumstances  Fall between an event and a person’s reaction to the event   Work off the level 3 thoughts – readily accepted  Level 3 = underlying assumptions or core beliefs   About the self and the world o Cognitions at this level are stable and almost always outside our  awareness  o Beck’s theory of depression  Depressive triad  Negative view of self, world, and the future  I’m worthless, everything bad happens to me, nothing is ever going to  get better  Described a number of distortions in thinking that those who have various  psychological disorders experience  Arbitrary inference  Selective abstraction  Overgeneralization  Magnification and exaggeration  Personalization  Polarized thinking o Ellis  Psychological problems are due to irrational thought patterns that stem from an  individual’s belief system  The irrational thoughts are conditioned during childhood and then we reinforce  them in ourselves through our repetitive self­talk  “should, musts, and oughts” are clues to irrational, rigidly held beliefs  Treatment   Help client see links between thoughts, behaviors, and feelings  Work to identify automatic and irrational thoughts  Examine the evidence for and against these thoughts   Find alternative ways of thinking/more adaptive conclusions  RET – Rational Emotive Therapy o Uses Socratic style debate to discuss/refute/change irrational  beliefs – lots of confrontation o Becks’ is more of a mutual discovery process – very structured o Many empirically supported treatments are cognitive in nature o Strengths  Includes the role of external forces on thoughts/behavior/emotions  Can monitor progress fairly easily  Fairly concrete and understandable  Insight into problems is not a requirement o Criticisms  Doesn’t consider the person as a whole – people and behavior is the result of  more than just thoughts and beliefs – mechanistic view of humans  Therapist plays an authoritative role – more of a teacher or expert can be  intimidation for clients, therapist may not be correct  If incorrectly applied, many serve as a means to blame the individual for his/her  problems


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