New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Geology 130, Chapter 3 Reading Notes

by: Sophia Clark

Geology 130, Chapter 3 Reading Notes GEOL 130

Marketplace > University of Pennsylvania > Geology > GEOL 130 > Geology 130 Chapter 3 Reading Notes
Sophia Clark

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes on Chapter 3 of Essentials of Oceanography for Geology 130 at the University of Pennsylvania.
Oceanography: Oceans & Climate
Dr. Jane Dmochowski
Class Notes
GEO 130 GEO Geology
25 ?




Popular in Oceanography: Oceans & Climate

Popular in Geology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sophia Clark on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 130 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Jane Dmochowski in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Oceanography: Oceans & Climate in Geology at University of Pennsylvania.


Reviews for Geology 130, Chapter 3 Reading Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/08/16
Saturday, February 6, 2016 GEO 130: Chapter 3: Marine Provinces Reading Notes DR. JANE DMOCHOWSKI SPRING 2016, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYVALNIA Section 3.1— What Techniques are Used to Determine Ocean Bathymetry? - Bathymetry: measurement of ocean depths and charting of the shape (topography) - Soundings: • Soundings: process of measuring the depth of the ocean ( by dropping a line with a weight attached to measure the depth of the ocean) - Used since 85 B.C for next 200 years - fathom (about 6 feet): standard unit of ocean depth • First systematic bathymetric measurements of oceans using soundings in 1872 by HMS Challenger - showed that oceans have variations in elevation like dry land - not very efficient because doesn’t give full picture of ocean bathymetry - Echo Soundings: • echo sounder (fathometer): type of sonar that helps to measure depth of oceans - echo sounder sends a sound signal from ship downward, echoes are created when signal bounces off of objects with density difference. Time it takes for echoes to return helps determine depth and shape of ocean floor - Cons of echo sounding: lack detail, gives inaccurate view of variations in elevation - precision depth recorder (PDR): improved sonar developed after WWII. Uses focused high-frequency sound beamsn - Modern echo sounding: • multibeam echo sounders: echo sounders that use multiple frequences of sound at the same 1 Saturday, February 6, 2016 • Seabeam (first multibeam echo sounder): can map features of ocean floor in strips of 60km wide • side-scan sonar systems (Ex. Sea MARC and GLORIA): towed behind ship and give detailed strip map. Used in deep water where detailed surveying is required - Using Satellites to Map Ocean Properties from Space: • multibeam & side-scan sonar give very detailed bathymetry, very time consuming and expensive • Instead, satellites used to measure large areas of ocean all at once • How Works: - depth of ocean and sea floor features influence Earth’s gravitational field - trenches have lower gravitational attraction - seamounts have extra gravitational attraction - difference in gravitational pull show on satellite readings Section 3.2— What Features Exist on Continental Margins? - Ocean floor divided into: continental margins: shallow-water areas close to continents • • deep-ocean basins: deep water areas farther from land • mid-ocean ridge: shallow areas near middle of ocean - Passive Versus Active Continental Margins: • continental margins are passive or active based on proximity to plate boundaries • Passive Margins: in interior of lithospheric plates— not near plate boundary - Built by rifting and sea floor spreading - Ex. East Coast of US - Features of passive margins: • don’t have much tectonic activity (earthquakes, volcanoes etc) 2 Saturday, February 6, 2016 • continental shelf, continental slope & continental rise • Active Margins: on or near lithospheric plate boundaries - high tectonic activity - Two Types of Margins: • Convergent Active Margins: usually oceanic-continental convergent plate boundaries - Ex. Western South America (Nazca Plate subducting beneath South American plate) - usually includes a arc-shaped row of active volcanoes, narrow shelf, steep slope and offshore trench • transform active margins: less common, connected to transform plate boundaries - Ex. Coastal California along San Andreas Fault - usually parallel transform plate boundary fault and make islands, banks and deep basins close to shore - Continental Shelf: flat zone from shore under ocean surface to shelf break - Shelf break: increased slope angle that occurs at the end of a continental shelf - Usually flat, featureless. Can contain coastal islands, reefs & raised banks - Shelfs and shelf breaks vary in size and slope - changing sea levels effects the shoreline and therefore the breadth of the shelf - type of continental margin determines shape and features of continental shelf • passive margins — wider shelf • convergent active margin — narrow continental shelf and shelf break close to shore • transform active faults— offshore faults make continental shelf not flat (lots of change in elevation (continental borderland)) - Continental Slope: deep-ocean basins begin • created similarly as mountain ranges on land 3 Saturday, February 6, 2016 - Submarine Canyons and Turbidity Currents: • submarine canyons: narrow deep submarine valleys. V-shaped. - carved by rivers, or currents underwater - created on continental slope and get bigger over time • turbidity currents: underwater current moving downslope and carries sediment - might be how submarine canyons are created - move rocks and debris & sediment because of gravity and in process carve submarine canyons over time - Continental Rise: transition zone between continental margin and deep-ocean floor • materials transported by turbidity currents make up continental rise graded bedding: material from currents eventual settles and is layered • - larger pieces settled first, smaller pieces settle etc • turbidite deposits: different stacks of sediment from currents that make up continental rise • deep-sea fans (submarine fans): creation of continental rise along base of continental slope Section 3.3— What Features Exist in the Deep-Ocean Basins? - deep-ocean floor is beyond continental margin province (shelf, slope and rise) - Abyssal Plains: • abyssal plains: flat areas that cover large areas of deep-ocean basins - formed by particles of sediments that go onto deep-ocean floor - suspension settling: process that results in a thick layer of sediment accumulating on ocean floor. - Volcanic Peaks of the Abyssal Plains • Volcanic peaks under sediment on abyssal plains if rise up above sediment, are called seamounts and tablemounts • abyssal hills (seaknolls): features that are less than 1000 meters tall 4 Saturday, February 6, 2016 • abyssal hill provinces: regions with lots of abyssal hills - Ocean Trenches and Volcanic Arcs: • ocean trenches: deep linear scars in ocean floor (caused by collision of two plates) - convergent active margins slope becomes long, narrow steep-sided • volcanic arc: landward side of the trench, can produce islands or volcanic mountain ranges - deepest portions of worlds oceans • Pacific Ring of Fire: is along margins of Pacific Ocean - has majority of active volcanoes and large earthquakes because of convergent plate boundaries Section 3.4— What Features Exist Along the Mid-Ocean Ridge? - mid-ocean ridge is continuous mountain range • completely volcanic w/ basaltic lavas • rift valley: downdrop created by sea floor spreading - oceanic ridges: rift valley, steep rugged slopes - oceanic rises: gentler and less rugged - Volcanic Features: • seamounts: tall volcanoes • pillow lavas (pillow basalts) smooth, rounded lobes of rock - created when hot basaltic lava spills on sea floor and is cooled rapidly - Hydrothermal Vents: • hydrothermal vents: sea floor hot springs. Made when cold seawater reaches through cracks into underground magma chambers - Three Different types of water based of of temperature of water: • warm-water vents: water temps below 30 C, clear colored water 5 Saturday, February 6, 2016 • White smokers: water temps between 30 C - 350 C, white water because of light-colored compounds • Black Smokers: water temps above 350 C, black water because of dark colored metal sulfides (iron, nickel, copper, zinc) - diverse ecosystems live within vents - Fracture Zones and Transform Faults: • transform faults: faults oriented perpendicular to spreading zones. Exist to accommodate spreading of linear ridges. Seismically active area. • fracture zones: seismically inactive area that probably used to be a transform fault 6


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.