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A&p 2

by: Ashlee Wilson

A&p 2 BIOL 2020

Ashlee Wilson
University of Memphis
GPA 3.3
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Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Martha Brown

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Chapter 17 notes for A&P 2
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Martha Brown
Class Notes




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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlee Wilson on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2020 at University of Memphis taught by Martha Brown in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
AampP Chapter 17 The Special Senses Olfaction Sense of Smell Vision Tract is a cluster of axons in the central nervous system This tract does not pass through the thalamus before it gets to the cerebral cortex The only one that does this cAMP causes depolarization involved in degenerating action potential Epiglottis is the ap that covers your trachea when swallowing food This keeps food from going into the lungs name changed from gustatory instead of olfactory Filiform no taste buds 3rd important in swallowing Glosso refers to tongue Eyelids are referred to as the Palpebral eyelids lined with conjunctiva Lacrimal contain sebaceous glands Connective tissue is the most abundant in the body Multiple advantages in production of tears Oblique muscles help with the rolling of the eyes Sclera is the white part of the eye 3rCI layer retina also called inner tunic Ciliary process is responsible for replacing the uid Every 90 minutes this is replaced Difference in eye color relates to the amount of melanin and pigment produced Retina is the yellow layer on the inside Macular degenerationmacula begins to break down and gets hazy in the central vision Detached retinaretina bulges outward due to uid build up between the pigmented layer and neural layer Rods are more numerous than cones 120 million rods to 6 million cones Neural layer Cornea admits and refracts light Sclera Provides shape and protects inner parts lris regulates amount of light that enters eyeball Ciliary body Secretes aqueous humor and alters shape of lens for near and far vision Choroid Provides blood supply and absorbs scattered light Lasik39s is used to reshape the cornea will x astigmatism Light adaptation does not happen as quickly with rods cGMP controls the activator molecules 0 Hyperpolarization more negative on the inside 0 To get action potential you have to depolarize optic chiasm is where the two optic nerves cross like an X Goes through the thalamus monocular vision is like a horse with its eyes on the sides of its head and not the front 0 malleus hammer lncus Stapesstirrup Hearing and Equilibrium Ear is divided into 3 parts external middle and internal nucleus is cluster of cell bodies Crossing over decusation Superior olivary nucleus allows you to detect where the sound is coming fromdirection o Equilibrium balance exists in two forms Static and Dynamic 0 Static equilibrium maintenance of the body s position relative to the force of gravity 0 Dynamic equilibrium the maintenance of the body s position in response to sudden movements Vestibular apparatus the organs that maintain equilibrium lncludes saccule utricle and semicircular canals Auricle collects sound waves 0 External auditory canal directs sound waves to eardrum Tympanic membrane sound waves cause it to vibrate which causes malleus to vibrate Auditory ossicles transmit and amplify vibrations from tympanic membrane to oval window Auditory tube equalizes air pressure on both sides of tympanic membrane Saccule contains macula site of hair cells for static equilibrium Utricle contain macula site of hair cells for static equilibrium Semicircular ducts contain cristae site of hair cells for dynamic equilibrium Vestibular apparatus includes semicircular ducts utricle and saccule which generate nerve impulses that propagate along vestibular branch of vestibular nerve VIII Cochlea contains a series of uids channels and membranes that transmit vibrations to spiral organ the organ of hearing hair cells spiral organ produce receptor potentials which elicit nerve impulses in cochlear branch of vestibular nerve VIII


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