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The first two weeks of notes

by: Shantaea Jones Allen

The first two weeks of notes BIOL 156 - C01

Shantaea Jones Allen

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These notes will cover the 1st exam of the semester.
Principal of Biology II
Professor Steven Harris
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shantaea Jones Allen on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 156 - C01 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Professor Steven Harris in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Principal of Biology II in Biology at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
Biology II Notes Charles Darwin is the 1  to identify the process of evolution (Origins of Species) in 1859.   Charles Darwin was able understand evolution because he spent his adult life obsessed with  observing nature.  Adaptation: the way organisms are ideally shaped to enhance their survival and reproduction in  specific environments Fitness: the relative ability to survive and create offspring   More fit = more surviving offspring  Less fit = fewer surviving offspring Natural selection: when organism adapt to their environment tend to survive and produce  offspring Drive evolutionary change:   Variation of Phenotypes ­ Different members of a population have all kinds of individual  variations  Variation are heritable   Population can have more offspring then resources­“struggle for existence”  Favorable traits will be more successfully during reproduction Different Modes of Selection  Artificial selection: selection by humans for particular trait in breeding programs,  systematically selecting which individual mate and increase frequency of desired  phenotype.  Disruptive/Diversifying Selection: change in population genetic in which extreme values  for a trait are favored over intermediate values  Stabilizing selection: genetic diversity decreases and population mean stabilizes in  particular trait value. Selects against extreme phenotypes and chooses the majority.  Directional Selection: an extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes causing  alleles frequency to shift overtime in the direction of the phenotype  Sexual Selection: struggle between individuals of the same sex to possess the opposite  sex o Mating isn’t random Speciation The human species, Homo Sapiens, are the single remaining members of genus Homo.  Humans are specific type of organism that’s different from other from all other organism  out there. Biology II Notes Species: a group of organism that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. Reproductive isolation: Groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural population are  reproductively isolated from other such group, two population of the same species can no longer  mate together successfully. Post­zygotic: parent can form sex cells together, but offspring can’t produce their own offspring.  Pre­zygotic: the isolation happened between groups of the same species before and egg is  fertilized.  Allopatric speciation: one species diverges into two new species because geographic isolation Species can also diverge without being geographic separated by being reproductive  isolated, which is called Sympatric speciation.  Parapatric: hybrids between two species become reproductively isolation (rare) Evolution: change in heritable characteristics in a population of species across generation  Genetic change  Population is a group of individuals (same species) occupying an area  Population level  When a species evolves   It’s not progressive o There is no goal nor steady improvement or advancement  It is sematic   Change is slow & gradual  Punctuated equilibrium Population Genetic  Population:  a group of individuals of a species that can interbreed  Allele frequency: how often certain alleles certain turn up within a population  Mutation: when egg and sperm are formed through meiosis a mistake occurs during  copying process of DNA  Gene Flow: when individuals with different genes find their into a population and spread  their alleles all over the place  Genetic Drift: change in allele frequencies due to the chance isolation of a small group  from a large population Hardy­Weinberg Law: calculated change in the frequencies of allies in a population successive  generation The hardy­Weinberg model requires that the population is in equilibrium, thus  four condition must be met: 1. No individual join or leave the population (no genetic drift or gene flow) Biology II Notes 2. Mating between different genotypes are random and equally likely (no  sexual selection) 3. One allele for a trait does not improve survival more than another allele  (no natural selection) 4. There are no genetic mutations Hardy­Weinberg Equation:  2 2 p +2 pq+q =1 2 2  p  is the homogenous dominate allele (AA):  √ p =p=¿  allele frequency in  population 2 pq   is the heterozygous alleles (Aa): q 2 √q =q=¿   is the homogenous recessive allele (aa):   allele frequency in  population


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