Gen. Psych. Week TWO
Gen. Psych. Week TWO PSYC 10300 - 02
Popular in General Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cecille Forsyth on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 10300 - 02 at Ithaca College taught by Adam Lueke in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
General Psychology February 2, 2016 The Research Enterprise of Psychology: • Goals of Psychology Measurement and descriptions: • • accurately measure and describe what’s trying to be proven. • Examples: • Priming: If one is exposed to “something” that has some kind of social characteristic, it • activates that little packet of information that is associated with that “something” and it makes it more likely that its gonna come out in you. • Definition: is the implicit influence of an Earlier presented stimulus on the response to a later stimulus. This influence is independent of conscious memory for the earlier stimulus. • For example, a charity is associated with donations, giving, generosity. • When people talk about charity your brain is activated and it thinks about all of the things it associates with charity • What would you expect from a person that is primed with old age? • They are generally slow. • This was used to test priming. They had people find words in a word search that were related to old age and had • other participants do a word search that had neutral words. • The hypothesis was that the people exposed to the concept of old age were going to be slower. They took note of the time it took both groups of people get to the elevator • • The answer was that the people that completed the “old word search” were walking much slower than the people that did the “neutral word search”. • Later on, they asked if they noticed the change, but no one did. Hence, proving that this is NOT a conscious process. • This is used to prove many different phenomenons. • For example, consumer brands: • RedBull reminds people of: “It gives you wings”, makes you fly, gives you speed • In their commercials we see people doing extreme sports and “crazy extreme stuff” • The commercial of the guy parachuting from outer space. Hypothesis: If priming works with brands then people that are exposed to • RedBull should become faster and should start taking more risks. • We should measure risk taking when exposed to RedBull • Variables: Exposure to RedBull vs Not and Behavior Understanding the Predictions • • Hypothesis: test theories from different angles • Variable:Any factor that can take on more than one value. • helps test theories General Psychology February 2, 2016 • Theory: “a broad umbrella like statement that gives a general description of what behavior is and what it does” RedBull Example: the theory is that brands themselves can prime behavior. • • Application and Control • Youtube: “Fairness study” • The original theory was that animals understand fairness to a certain extent Hypothesis: If two animals (monkeys in this case) were place next to each other and one • was treated different, we would expect rebellion from the one that doesn't benefit. • Variable: the one that changes in this case is the food type and the one that is being measured is their behavior Scientific Method • • Specify the Hypothesis • And if there is a theory it must be specified; how it relates to the hypothesis. • Design the study/Create the experiment - Get approval Collect Data • • Analyze Data • Report Results • Different ways to study our problems/How do we collect our data: Natural observation: being removed from whatever area one is studying and simply • taking notes • The most hands off approach • Examples: Darwin’s Evolution • • Jane Goodall and the Chimps • Participant Observation:Adescriptive research method in which the observer becomes part if the group being observed. This method is not often used • • Example: • Doomsday Cult thought that the world was going to end on December 21 and that only the true believers would be beamed up by a UFO moments before the world is going to end. • Liam Festinger (Social psychologist) • wikipedia.org/wiki/When_Prophecy_Fails • Case Study: a descriptive research method in which the researcher studies an individual in depth over an extended period of time • Used for things we don't know very well and are very rare • Example: • The three faces of Eve (dissociative identity disorder/identity disorder) Youtube: did_three_faces_eve • • This disorder is hard to diagnose because people start to believe that they have it or pretend to have it and use it to their advantage. General Psychology February 2, 2016 • Survey Method:Adescriptive research method in which the research uses questionnaires and interviews to collect informations about the behavior, beliefs, and attitudes of particular groups of people. • Archival Research: going back in to old pieces of information and trying to find things. • Example: • Former New York Metrostars, now New York RedBulls Sponsored by RedBull • • Hypothesis: They should betaking more risks and making more fouls. • NY Metrostars didn't make many fouls, but the NY RedBulls made many more fouls • Correlational Research: a research study in which two variables are measured to determine if they are related (how well either one predicts the other). • measures two variables and sees their relationship • The variable relationships are either positive, negative, or neutral • The numbers assigned are in between the following -1 to 0 to 1 The closer the number is to one of the extremes the stronger the correlation • • Examples • Twin’s IQs • CollegeAcceptances “Correlation does not equal causation” • • Causation: • Examples: • TV violence and aggression in children maybe TV is making kids more aggressive or maybe aggressive kids are attracted to • violent TV • Third Variable Problem: an explanation of a correlation between between two variables in terms of another (third) variable that could possibly be responsible for the observed relationship between the two variables.: • Example: There is a correlation between ice cream and murder. The more ice cream you eat the more murders you commit. the third variable in this case would be the weather. The hotter it is the higher the chance you are too go out and get ice cream but also the higher the chance you will hurt someone that irritates you. • Youtube: Correlation Vs. Causality: DVD Bonus • Experimental Research: • Tries to find causality by manipulating one to maybe two variables Experimental group (receives the variable of interest) vs Control group • • Independent Variable: In and experiment, the variable that is hypothesized case and thus is manipulated but the experimenter. • Dependent Variable: In an experiment, a variable that is hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable and thus is measured but the experimenter. • Confounding variable: the you accidentally get another variable mixed up in your independent variable. • Example: General Psychology February 2, 2016 • Collect people for Blue room and people for the Red room to prove that color helps memory. Problem: Blue room can only be booked in the morning and Red room can only be • booked in the afternoon. • Is it the color that helps people’s memory or is it the time of day? • Potential Cofounds in Research Sampling Bias: Not representative of the population • • generalizations • Example: • Social Media vs Social Development The age group that would probably be excluded from this experiment would be the • older (grandparent) generation. • Placebo Effect: improvement due to the expectation of improving because of receiving treatment Self Report Distortions: • • Prominent in survey research • Social Desirability Bias • People answer the way they want to be viewed. Experimenter Bias • • The people that create the experiment usually don't actually fulfill the experiment • Example: • Clever Hans- the counting horse: This horse new how to count. FALSE. What he knew what to do was read his owner’s facial expressions and mannerisms. The way they figured this out was by removing the owner from the equation and seeing the difference.
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