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by: Alex Phillips

Notes2224.pdf History 1020

Alex Phillips
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

These notes are from 2-2 and 2-4
World History II
Cari L Casteel
Class Notes
world history ii, industrial revolution, Life in the Industrial Revolution, Mining, Cotton work, Cholera, Sewer Systems, London
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Phillips on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020 at Auburn University taught by Cari L Casteel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
Alex Phillips HISTORY NOTES: HIST 1020 Casteel 2.2.16 – 2.4.16 LIFE IN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - The Nouveau Riche (translation: the new rich people) o People who got rich b/c of the I.D. (Industrial Revolution) - The Working Class o Harsh living conditions, bad working conditions o Lived in tenements: housing projects for those who worked  People lived in these in shifts depending on when they worked o Younger people and women made less than men o Life expectancy:  England: 40 y/o  Manchester: 25 y/o  In poorer neighborhoods the life expectancy was around 17 y/o  Children were not living long b/c unsanitary living conditions and dangerous conditions in factories - Jacob Riis & Lewis Hine documented industrialization through photography MINING - Trappers: little kids (from 8 y/o) o sit in mineshaft and open/close doors for miners to get in/out - Hurrier: usually young women (b/c they could be older and stronger but still shorter) o Tie belt and chain around body and they pull carts full of coal, silver, etc. - Hewers: teenage boys o People who actually mined the resource COTTON WORK - Called people who did cotton work lint heads - Doffer: small children working in factory o Climbed around and cleaned up to make sure machine didn’t jam - Robert Blincoe (author) “The Horrors of a Cotton Mill” RICKETS - Nickname: the English disease - Caused by a lack of vitamin D - Children rarely saw the sun b/c they were in the factory all day WORK PLACE INJURIES - People lost legs, hands, arms, etc. - Many casualties THE OTHER SIDE OF INDUSTRIALIZATION - Cause: England needed to keep up with demand for cotton- Effect: expansion of slavery - Life on the plantations o Most African slaves went to tropical and subtropical regions where sugar grew - People sold slaves if they needed money (they had receipts for slaves) - Think back to Code Noir: The same rules do not necessarily apply now - Mortality Rate of slaves o Three times higher (20-30 y/o) - Ways slaves resisted: working slowing, running away, revolting (like in Haiti), or sabotage (example: they would break their own fingers so they didn’t have to work) - Oladuah Equiano wrote about being taken from his home in Nigeria - Nat Turner o He and 6 others killed the Travis family he worked for o Gathered 75 other slaves and killed 51 whites - Riots like this spread the thought that slavery should end o Similar to enlightened thoughts of natural rights PROTESTING INDUSTRIALIZATION - Trade unions outlawed before this - Class conflicts o Luddites protest b/c they lost their jobs to textile machines: they made less money as skilled weavers b/c the machine did their job. o Peterloo Massacre: crowd of people came together to talk about working conditions. They were found guilty of “gathering”. Military sent and fired on crowd - Revolutions in 1848 - Government responses o Working conditions o Amending child labor protest o Updating factory work o Men’s Suffrage environment o Underclass revolutions o Widened voting population o Talks of abolition were o Creating poor houses - Michel Sadler created interviews of working conditions for children NEW IDEOLOGIES - Industrial Revolution protests sparked ideological thought - Old Ideology: Classical liberalism o Adam Smith: father of capitalism  Interventions from the government lessen liberty  Anyone who isn’t wealthy doesn’t deserve to be b/c they aren’t working hard enough o Great for factory owners not factory workers - Thomas Malthus o Problem: Food supply wouldn’t be able to keep up with population growth o Solution: Stop having children/have less o Government shouldn’t intervene to help the poor - Criticisms of Capitalism o Wealth distributions between classes was poor o Poor people had bad living conditions o Poor working conditions - Socialism: each working person earns the proper value based on what he/she contributed to production - Communism: means of production belong to the people o In other words, goods and services are allocated equally among the people How a society gets to communism according to Marx - Step1: poverty and desperation farce the people to take control of the government and production - Step2: violent revolutions - Step3: establish a socialist government - class and race conflicts continue - critiques of capitalism increase in places where the gap between rich and poor is higher NOTES FROM 2.4.16 AGE OF REFORM - urbanization: cities didn’t have the infrastructure to accommodate the population growth PROBLEM OF URBANIZATION - garbage on the streets -> what do you do with it? o Dumped it in bodies of water - Cesspools: large holes in the ground lined with rocks where the people dumped their waste (usually located close to water wells) o “update” from earth closets (holes in the ground) o Cause: b/c located close to wells, sewage leaked into drinking water supply – Effect: people got sick MISAMA - def: bad smelling air (why they thought people were getting sick) - built factory chimneys taller so the “bad air” didn’t sink down - people smoked cigars and burnt herbs to cover the smells so they wouldn’t make them sick What people thought would help against CHOLERA - nickname : King Cholera - got it from infected water (location of cesspools) - hard to stop spread b/c they didn’t know how diseases spread - What happens: severe dehydration (diarrhea) -> blood dehydrates -> you turn blue - Wealthy people thought poor people caused Cholera - John Snow: investigated what was making thousands of people die o Mapped out where most people throughout city were dying o Noticed people using a certain water pump were dying. What did he do?...  Pump shouldn’t be used, so he took off the handle to the pump and people stopped getting cholera in that area  However, people were still skeptical of this theory SEWER SYSTEMS - Joseph Bazelgette (“The Sewer Snake”): contracted to design a sewer system - At this point sewers were going out of the city and into giant cesspools in the country side - Pipe system constructed prevented more outbreaks of Cholera GENERAL BOARD OF HEALTH - skeptical of John Snow’s theory - thought the problem was the garbage on the street -> “bad” smells making them sick o addressed getting garbage off street: Solution – dump it into the river (Thames)  after about 4 years the river made the whole city smell bad: called this the “Great Stink” of London GERM THEORY - Louis Pasteur: Asked what it was in the water that was making people sick- answer=germs - Initial germ theory: thought germs made things (like food) spoil and that is what made people sick BATHING/CLEANLINESS - People because obsessed with cleanliness b/c of germ theory o Thought changing into a clean shirt made them cleaner b/c the linen shirt soaked up all the bad/dirty things on them o After germ theory: people bathing once a week (more often), using soap, soap advertisements everywhere o Used deodorant - Perfume o Women sprayed handkerchiefs to allow them to smell the “good smells” and keep the “bad smells” out o Became very popular - Things like soap, deodorant, and perfume only available to those who could afford it -> CREATED INEQUALITY AMONG CLASSES - Industrial Revolution changed how people viewed the world they lived in and how they lived in it


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