Biology 101 notes
Biology 101 notes Biology 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Zagrodniczek on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 101 at West Virginia University taught by Sydha Salihu (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at West Virginia University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Chapter 2: Chemistry -Raw materials and fuel for our bodies –Food -A food that is a good source of fiber will have at least 2.5-5 grams of fiber per serving. 96% of your body is composed of these 4 elements: -oxygen 65% -carbon 18.5% -Hydrogen 9.5% -Nitrogen 3% -Living systems are highly sensitive to acidic and basic conditions (pH scale) depending on what foods we eat. -PH refers to the number of hydrogen ions in a solution -acids: more H+ ions -Bases more OH- ions -pH scale runs from 0-14, 7 is neutral (0 is low pH, 14 high pH) lower number means higher acidity -Acids are fluids that have more H+ ions than OH- ions. Strong acids are corrosive to metals. (Battery acid, soda, beer, coffee) -Bases are fluids that have more OH- ions to H+ ions. Strong bases are caustic to your skin. (Blood, baking soda, Ammonia, bleach) -Macromolecules- makes up who you are, organic molecules (nucleic acids, proteins, carbs, lipids) that comes from the food we eat that builds us. -Raw materials from the cell -Food guide pyramid 15% lipids, 25% proteins, 60% carbohydrates -Macromolecules/organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxyben -Simple molecules: sugar, amino acids, nucleotides Carbohydrates -glucose: most common monosach- used for energy -Sucrose: table sugar- short term E storage -Starches, glycogen- long term E storage -Cellulose, chitin: structural mold for plants & insects (extra support) -Monomers (single. Simple sugars- glucose, fructose, galactose) -> polymers (chain. Complex carbohydrates- starch, cellulose, chitin, glycogen) -common monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose -Complex carbohydrates are time-released packets of energy -Disaccharides: glucose + fructose- table sugare (sucrose), glucose + galactose- milk sugar (lactose). -polysaccarides: starch, cellulose Glucose -Most carbohydrates ultimately converted into glucose -Eating a lot of it will be stored as fat -Carbo-loading is when you eat a lot of pasta for an event the day before it -Depending on their structure, dietary carbohydrates can lead to quick but brief or slow but persistent increases in blood sugar. -Not all carbohydrates are digestible. Because of one small difference in the chemical bond between the simple sugar units, cellulose has a slightly different
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