Chapter 3: Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind
Chapter 3: Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind Psych 1010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 3: Consciousness and the Two Track Mind Consciousness Consciousness – awareness of oneself and their environment, coordinated brain activity Cognitive Neuroscience – study of brain activities links to cognition including memory, perception, thinking, and language Dual Processing Dual Processing – when information is processed at the same time on different conscious and unconscious tracks (high track follows deliberate actions while the low track follows automatic actions) o The benefit of having dual tracks is not having to think about every action performed at one time Blindsight – condition in which a person responds to visual stimuli without consciously experiencing it Parallel Processing – the processing of multiple aspects of a situation at the same time; accounts for the brain’s natural way of processing information concerning many functions Selective Attention Selective Attention – to focus conscious awareness on a certain stimulus o Cocktail Party Effect – the ability to pay attention to one conversation despite multiple other conversations happening around you Inattentional Blindness – the failure to see objects when attention is directed somewhere else The conscious mind is in one place at a time Change Blindness – the failure to see a change in the environment Sleep and Biological Rhythm Sleep – a cyclical and natural loss of consciousness based on a 24 hour clock and a 90 minute sleep cycle Circadian Rhythm – the biological clock consisting of regular bodily rhythms that occur over a period of 24 hours o Rhythm can vary depending on the person and their age o From daytime to nighttime, the body tends to differ in temperature, energy, and mental sharpness Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Sleep and Dream Stages REM Sleep – rapid eye movement sleep stage during which vivid dreams and wild brain activity happens o During this time, heart rate rises and breathing is rapid despite relaxed muscles o Sleep Paralysis – the brainstem blocks the motor cortex’s messages and muscles remain still Alpha Waves – brain waves slow while in a relaxed and awake state NREM1 o Hallucinations – fake sensory experiences NREM2 o Sleep Spindles – quick bursts of rhythmic brain activity NREM3 o Delta Waves – large and slow brain waves during deep sleep Biological and Environmental Influences on Sleep Patterns The amount and pattern of sleep is influences by age, culture, and individual differences Circadian Rhythm, although hard to shift, can be affected by light or the pineal gland’s decreased production of melatonin Suprachiasmatic Nucleus – cell cluster in the hypothalamus that control circadian rhythm and aids in the pineal gland’s melatonin production to alter sleepiness The Functions of Sleep Sleep protects (ancestors were in more danger during dark hours, sleep kept them safe) Sleep helps to recuperate by restoring the immune system and repairing brain tissue Sleep aids in the restoration and rebuilding of the memories throughout the day’s experiences o Memories are processed in the hippocampus and sent to the cortex or frontal lobes for storage Sleep feeds creative thinking Sleep supports growth as the pituitary gland releases a muscle growth hormone during sleep Sleep Loss and Sleep Disorders Sleep can help to feel refreshed, sustain better moods, and perform more accurately and efficiently Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Inadequate sleep can cause a loss of brainpower, a gain in weight, to get sick, to be irritable, to feel old, and an increase in accident risk through impaired attention and slower reaction rate Things that can alter the amount of sleep one receives include o Light o Eating late or drinking alcohol or caffeine o Getting up at the same time everyday o Exercise o Checking the clock o Counseling for anxiety and depression Insomnia – problems that frequently occur in falling or staying asleep Narcolepsy – uncontrollable sleep attacks directly into REM Sleep Apnea – temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and frequent quick awakenings Night Terrors – appearance of fright and high arousal which occur during NREM3 and are easily forgotten Dreams Dream – a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts that go through a sleeping person’s mind which includes hallucinatory imagery and delusional acceptance of the content of the dream despite difficulties in recalling it People dream to satisfy their own wishes o After trauma, people have more nightmares o Those in huntergatherer societies dream of animals more often than others o Blind people dream using their nonvisual senses Freud believed there were two components of dreams o Manifest Content – the remembered story of a dream o Latent Content – the underlying meaning of a dream Theorists believe dreams are for multiple purposes o To file away memories o To develop and preserve neural pathways o To make sense of a neural state o To reflect cognitive development REM Rebound – the tendency for an increase in REM sleep to occur after sleep deprivation Substance Use Disorders Substance Use Disorder – a continuous craving for substance use despite its environmental or physical risks Psychoactive Drug – chemical that alters perceptions and moods Tolerance – a decreased effect after continued use of the dose of a drug requiring larger doses in order to get the same effect Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Addiction – compulsive drug or behavior craving despite the consequences Withdrawal – distress after one stops taking an addictive drug o These symptoms can be painful as the body readjusts without the drug Depressants Depressants – drugs that decrease neural activity and slow the body’s functions o Alcohol – slows sympathetic nervous system, reduces memory formation, impairs selfcontrol, and acts as a disinhibitor o Barbiturates – reduce anxiety and impair memory and judgment o Opiates – temporary reduction of pain and anxiety; large doses can produce euphoria Stimulants Stimulants – drugs that excite neural activity and speed up body functions, increasing heart rate and blood sugar o Amphetamines – cause mood swings and energy changes o Nicotine – stimulating and addictive psychoactive drug in tobacco People smoke due to culture/media/peers, the stimulating effects, and the difficulties in stopping o Cocaine – a stimulant from the coca plant that produces temporary increased alertness and euphoria, blocking reuptake and flooding synapses with dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine o Methamphetamine – causes energy swings and euphoria while lessening baseline dopamine levels over time o Ecstasy – synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen which produces euphoria and social intimacy with long term harm to dopamine and serotonin producing neurons o Caffeine – gives energy and disrupts sleep giving headaches, fatigue, and irritability with withdrawal Hallucinogens Hallucinogens – psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and create hallucinations o LSD – also known as acid, this drug interferes with serotonin levels o THC – active ingredient found in marijuana that binds with the brain’s cannabinoid receptors and causes mild hallucinations, relaxation of impulses, and a euphoric mood NearDeath Experience – altered state of consciousness after a close call with death Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Reasons for Using Drugs Biological Influences Psychological Influences Genetics Lack a sense of purpose Variations in Stress neurotransmitters Disorders (such as Identical twins more likely depression) to share drug use disorder Temperament Controversies of Drug Use Are substances inherently Drug Use addictive and should they be avoided at all costs? o Only 10 to 16 percent of those who try drugs become addicted Does recovery require therapy? o Recovery rates do not greatly differ from quitting on one’s own Is addiction applicable to behaviors unrelated to SocioCultural Influences chemicals? o Addiction may be tied to the dopamine Peers reward center and so Media glorification chemical processes can be responsible for addicting behaviors
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