PSY 452; Week 3 Notes
PSY 452; Week 3 Notes PSY 452
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 452 at Colorado State University taught by Delozier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Reading Ch 3 Terms 0 focused selective attention focusing on one source of information and ignoring others 0 divided attention multitasking two tasks being performed at the same time Q shadowing repeating aloud one audio message while another audio messages is also presented 0 neglect visual attention disorder where stimuli presented to the undamaged side of the brain are undetectable O crossmodal attention the synchronization of attention across two or more different modalities ex seeing and hearing 0 ventriloquist illusion perception that sounds are coming from their visual source 0 faceincrown effect threatening faces are detected quicker than faces with other expressions 0 illusory conjunction combining 2 features from different stimuli to perceive an object that isn39t there Selective Auditory Attention 0 it is easier to distinguish between 2 audio messages on the basis of physical difference over meaning 0 a bottleneck filter late in processing that limits ability to process more than one auditory message 0 Recent Developments 0 top down processes in auditory system enhance processing stimuli Selective Visual Attention 0 Spotlight 0 see only small area but can be redirected to focus on anything 0 Zoom Lens 0 we can decreaseincrease the area of focal attention 0 more accurate 0 Distraction Effects external and internal stimuli anxious more distracted than non taskrelevant more distracting than not greater distraction when task is lowload easier 0 Illusions Rubber Hand l misperception that a rubber hand is ones own I rubber hand is touched at same time as individuals 0 Body Swap l misperception that partall of another39s body is O 0000 one39s own l shaking hands while looking through the other person39s viewpoint 0 Barbie Doll l size of body is misperceived as one39s one in reference to size of objects in environment Disorders of Visual Attention Q Neglect O Attentional Systems I GoalDirected l influenced by expectations knowledge and intentions l uses topdown processing l StimulusDirected I use when unexpected and important stimulus occur I uses bottomup processing l damaged in those with neglect 0 Reducing Neglect l training of both attentional systems Visual Search Q angry faces easier to detect than non 0 moving objects easier to detect than non 0 Feature Integration Theory 0 easier to detect objects defined by a single feature than by two or more 0 similarity between target and distractors influences ease of search 0 mostly parallel processing 0 TopDown Processes O we search for objects where we think that are most likely to be found Consciousness 0 Issues 0 Sentience l subjective awarenessexperience I only available to individual having experience 0 Access to Information I ability to report the content of our experience without reporting the process 0 Self Knowledge l ability to have conscious awareness Q Is Consciousness Unitary 0 split brain patients have 2 consciousness39s I left dominant responsible for interpreting events I right lowlevel processing Lecture 21 23 Attention 0 mental process of concentrating effort on a stimulus or event 0 Active or Passive Q Focused or Divided 0 Flexible O with practice tasks become automatic Automaticity doesn39t require attention occurs outside of consciousness ballistic goalunrelated occurs in parallel not serially How 0 practice practice practice 0 consistent mapping same thing in same situation every time leads to atomicity I parallel processing I not attention demanding I ballistic O inconsistent mapping requires attentional control I serial processing l attention demanding l consciously controlled Two Properties of Attention 0 Limited 0 tested using divided attention tasks I subjects do more than one task at a time or attend to more that on message at a time Q Shaffer l skilled typists recite nursery rhymes aloud I measured typing speed in wpm I Results l typists perform both tasks with only 10 loss in wpm l difficult to interpret l are they switching bw both tasks I need attention only in bursts O Selective Attention amp Driving 0 85 of people use phone while driving 0 Brazil Israel Australia prohibit phones while driving 0 13 states ban use while driving 0 do permit handsfree devices 0 women and younger more likely to use phone 0 Redelmeier amp Tibshiranis 1997 O examined data from 699 drivers in accidents I scanned cell records 0 risk of accident 4x higher when using cell I no benefit from hands free I 2005 AUS study found same 0 almost as dangerous as driving drunk 0 Strayer Drews amp Johnston 0 tested students in driving simulator while on phones hands free 0 Results l slower breaking time increases likelihood and severity of accidents I alone 780 with phone912 I evidence for attentional theory I everyone says their own driving stays the same on phone or not Q Why is it bad 0 Peripheral Interference Hypothesis l interference from holding phone I Solution l hands free phones 0 Attentional Hypothesis l diverting attention to conversation I Solution I pull over and park 0 Texting and Driving 0 includes attentional component of handling phone 0 banned in 35 states 0 Drews et al I subjects perform task in driving simulator I text friend I Results more crashes more swerving lower following distance Selective Attention 0 pretty good at ignoring stimuli we are not attending to Q Selective Attention Task 0 subjects respond to one source of information while ignoring another source 0 Dichotic Listening 0 Cherry l subjects noticed very little about unattended message I didn39t notice change in language I did notice if gender changed 0 Moray l subjects could not recognize words presented over and over in unattended O The Bottleneck l limited ability to extract auditory information presented simultaneously l Early Filter l happens between intake of sensory information and meaning I information is only analyzed physically l Cocktail Party Effect l Moray I played name in unattended l 33 unno ced l Treisman I switched messaged from attended to unattended l messa ge was followed l Late Filter l information is analyzed physically and for meaning I only relevant meaning will make it through to awareness l Moveable Filter l early or late depending on needs and resources I Johnston and Heinz I subjects listen to 2 different word lists I shadowed for physical characteristics or meaning I Results I took longer to react when shadowing for meaning I Moral all stimuli are evaluated for physical characteristics I further processing takes more resources 0 Selective Visual Attention O 0 space 0 Unattended stimuli l processed less thoroughly Visual Neglect l patients don39t respond to objects on one side of l patients are unaware of the neglect l Mrs S I suffered a stroke affecting right side of brain I neglect in left visual field I misses food on left side of plate only applies lipstick to right side I swivels to right to find something that may be missing I Posner l neglect is failure to disengage attention I Vuilleumieretal l two pictures presented at same time in both visual fields I neglect subjects couldn39t describe both pictures I but could identify degraded pictures better than level of chance Stroop Task l automatic vs controlled processes I topdown processing makes it difficult Visual Search Q FaceinCrowd Effect 0 evolutionarily negative expressions are hazardous 0 Feature integration theory 0 Isolated Feature l single feature enough to find target I done in parallel I not attention demanding I only have to consult feature map 0 Combined Feature l a combination of features needed to find target I done by checking each item I demands attention I must combine information from 2 or more maps 0 Feature Maps I each map has information about the location of it39s feature I loaded without attention 0 Limitations l Similarity Among Distractors l faster when all the distractors look like each other I Similarity Between Target amp Distractors l the distractors and target look alike I Illusory Conjunctions I combine features to quotseequot target everywhere 0 BottomUp Processing 0 have to look at each feature before finding target 0 TopDown Processing 0 your experience with like tasks influences how you search I quotwhere things are likely to bequot 0 Stimulus Familiarity Q Wang I used N and backwards N measured reaction time I manipulated number of distractors I Results I found quotNquot quickly no matter the set snze I found backwards quotNquot slower as set size increased 0 Elephant I Results I found the quotdeadquot elephant faster than the quotlivequot one 0 Conclusions O familiar combinations of features can be loaded with little attention 0 One Idea I when distractors are familiar we can group them into 1 unit I makes the unfamiliar stand out
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