Psychology Chapter 3 Notes
Psychology Chapter 3 Notes Psych 1000
Popular in General Psychology (PSYCH 1000)
Popular in Psychlogy
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ally Smith on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1000 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Dennis Miller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (PSYCH 1000) in Psychlogy at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
PSYCH 1000 Chapter 3 Notes Biology and Behavior Section 31 how does the Nervous System Operate 1 Neurons The basic units of the nervous system cells that receive integrate and transmit information in the nervous system They operate through electrical impulses communicate with other neurons through chemical signals and form neural networks a Communicate selectively with other neurons to form circuits or neural networks 2 The Nervous System has two Basic Divisions a Central Nervous system the brain and the spinal cord b Peripheral Nervous system all nerve cells in the bodies that are not part of the central nervous system Includes the somatic and autonomic nervous systems i Somatic voluntary behavior ii Autonomic responsible for less voluntary actions c PNS sends information to the CNS then organizes and evaluates it and sends it back to PNS for speci c behaviors 3 Neurons are Specialized for Communication a Reception Neurons take in chemical signals from other neurons b lntegration Incoming signals are assessed c Transmission Pass their own signals to yet other receiving neurons d Types of Neurons i Sensory Neurons Detect information from the physical world and pass that information to the brain Through spinal cord 1 Somatosensory nerves sensory nerves that provide information from the skin and muscles ii Motor Neurons Direct muscles to contract or relax thereby producing movement iii lnterneurons Communicate within local or short distance circuits e Sensory and motor neurons work together to control movement f Neuron Structure i Typical neuron has 4 regions dendrites cell body soma axon and terminal buttons ii Dendrites branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons iii Cell body the site in the neuron where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated iv Axon a long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to other neurons 1 Nerve bundle of axons that carry information between the brain and other speci c locations in the body v Terminal buttons At the end of axons small nodules that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse vi Synapse Site where chemical communication occurs between neurons vii Neuron is covered with a membrane that does not dissolve in the watery environment inside and outside the neuron 1 Membrane is semipermeable a Some substances move in and out and some do not 2 Ion channels are located on membrane a Allow ions to pass in and out of the cell when the neuron transmits signals down the axon 4 The Resting Membrane Potential is Negatively Charged a Resting Membrane Potential The electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active i 70mV ii ratio of negative to positive ions is greater inside than outside b Polarized neuron is when it has more negative ions inside than outside c Roles of Sodium and Potassium Ions i They each contribute to RMP ii Sodium Potassium Pump Increases potassium and decreases sodium inside the neuron 5 Action Potentials Cause Neural Communication a Action Potential The electrical signal that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons b Changes in electrical potential lead to action i Signals that arrive at dendrites are one of two types 1 Excitatory a Depolarize the cell membranedecrease negative charge in the cell Signals increase the likelihood that the neuron will re 2 Inhibitory a Hyperpolarize the cellincrease negative charge in cell Signals decrease the likelihood that the neuron will re c Action Potentials Spread along the Axon i Myelin Sheath A fatty material made up of glial cells that insulates some axons to allow for faster movement of electrical impulses along the axon 1 Contributes to the quick speed of an action potential ii Nodes of Ranvier Small gaps of exposed axon between the segments of myelin sheath where action potentials take place d AllorNone Principle i The principle that when a neuron res it res with the same potency each time a neuron either res or not it cannot partially re although the frequency of ring can vary 1 Stronger the stimulus more frequent it res 6 Neurotransmitters Bind to Receptors Across the Synapse a b c d Presynaptic neuron sends the signal Postsynaptic neuron receives the signal Neurotransmitters Chemical substances that transmit signals from one neuron to another Receptors specialized protein molecules located on the postsynaptic membrane that speci cally respond to the chemical structure of the neurotransmitter available in the synapse Neurotransmitters bind with speci c receptors i 3 major events that terminate the neurotransmitter s in uence in the synapse are reuptake enzyme deactivation and autoreception 1 Reuptake The process whereby a neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic terminal buttons thereby stopping its activity 2 Enzyme deactivation occurs when an enzyme destroys the neurotransmitter in the synapse 3 Autoreceptors monitor how much neurotransmitter has been released into the synapse When excess is detected they signal the presynaptic neuron to stop releasing the neurotransmitters 7 Neurotransmitters ln uence Mental Activity and Behavior a Agonists drugs and toxins that enhance the actions of neurotransmitters b Antagonists drugs and toxins that inhibit these actions c Types of Neurotransmitters i Acetylcholine ACh Responsible for motor control at the junction between nerves and muscles it is also involved in mental processes such as learning memory sleeping and dreaming ii 4 transmitters have same molecular structure Monoamines 1 Epinephrine Responsible for bursts of energy after an event that is exciting or threating a Adrenaline 2 Norepinephrine Involved in states of arousal and attention 3 Serotonin Important for a wide range of psychological activity including emotional states impulse control and dreaming 4 Dopamine Involved in motivation reward and motor control over voluntary movement iii GABA gammaaminobutyric acid The primary inhibitory transmitter in the nervous system iv Glutamate The primary excitatory transmitter in the nervous system v Endorphins Involved in natural pain reduction and reward Section 32 What are the Basic Brain Structures and Their Functions 1 Early Researchers debated the relationship between structure and function a Gall and Spurzheim proposed that if a person used a particular mental function more than other mental functions the part of the brain that was emphasized would grow i Produce bump in skull ii Phrenology feeling the skull and describing personality of person b Paul Broca i Found that a particular area on the front left side was important for speech ii Broca39s area A small portion of the left frontal region of the brain crucial for the production of language 2 Scientists Can Now Watch the Working Brain a Psychophysiological assessment measurement of blood pressure breathing rate pupil size perspiration rate blood temp etc b Polygraphs quotlie detectorsquot c Electrophysiology i Data collection method that measures electrical activity in the brain ii Electroencephalograph Measures the brain s electrical activity 1 Different behavioral states produce different predictable EEG patterns d Brain Imaging i Measure changes in the rate or speed of the ow of blood to different regions of the brain ii Positron Emission Tomography PET A method of brain imaging that assesses metabolic activity by using a radioactive substance injected into the bloodstream 1 Find most active brain areas iii Magnetic resonance imaging MRI A method of brain imaging that uses a powerful magnetic field to produce highquality images of the brain 1 Can be used to locate brain damage or a tumor iv Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging fMRI An imaging technique used to examine changes in the activity of the working human brain by measuring changes in the blood s oxygen levels e Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation i Transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS The use of strong magnets to brie y interrupt normal brain activity as a way to study brain regions 1 Examining which brain regions are necessary for speci c psychological functions 3 The Brain Stem Houses the Basic Programs of Survival a Function coordination of re exes b Cord s most important function is to carry sensory information up to the brain and carry motor signals from the brain to the body parts below to initiate action c Spinal cord is 2 tissue types i Gray matter dominated by neurons cell bodies ii White matter consists mostly of axons and the fatty myelin sheaths that surround them d Brain Stem An extension of the spinal cord it houses structures that control functions associated with survival such as heart rate breathing swallowing vomiting urination and orgasm i Medulla Oblongata H Pons iii Midbrain iv Reticular Formation network of neurons that affects general alertness Also involved with different stages of sleep 4 The Cerebellum Is Essential for Movement Cerebellum A large convoluted protuberance at the back of the brain stem it is essential for coordinated movement and balance i Important for proper motor functions 1 Motor learning and motor memory 5 Subcortical Structures and Control Emotions and Appetitive Behaviors a b C Forebrain consists of the two cerebral hemispheres Subcortical regions lie under the cortex and are important for understanding psychological functions Limbic system serves as the border between evolutionary older parts of the brain and evolutionarily newer parts i Appetitive behavior Thalamus The gateway to the brain it receives almost all incoming sensory information before that information reaches the cortex i Exception smell direct route to cortex ii During sleep it shuts gate on incoming sensations Hypothalamus A brain structure that is involved in the regulation of bodily functions including body temp body rhythms blood pressure and blood glucose levels it also in uences our basic motivated behaviors Hippocampus A brain structure that is associated with the formation of memories Amygdala A brain structure that serves a vital role in learning to associate things with emotional responses and in processing emotional information Basal Ganglia A system of subcortical structures that are important for the planning and production of movement i Nucleus accumbens important for experiencing reward and motivating behavior 6 The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex Mental Activity Cerebral Cortex The outer layer of brain tissue which forms the convoluted surface of the brain the site of all thoughts perceptions and complex behaviors Each cerebral hemisphere has 4 lobes occipital parietal temporal and frontal lobes Corpus Callosum A massive bridge of millions of axons that connects the hemispheres and allows information to ow between them Occipital Lobes Regions of the cerebral cortexat the back of the brainimportant for vision i Primary visual cortex major destination for visual info e Parietal Lobes regions of the cerebral cortex in front of the occipital lobes and behind the frontal lobes important for the sense of touch and for attention to the environment i Primary somatosensory cortex a strip in the front part of the lobe running from the top of the brain down the sides Groups nearby sensations ii Somatosensory homunculus covers primary more sensitive areas iii Hemineglect Fail to notice anything on the left side even though their eyes work great f Temporal lobes Regions of the cerebral cortexbelow the parietal lobes and in front of the occipital lobes important for processing auditory information for memory and for object and face perception i Primary auditory cortex responsible for hearing ii Fusiform face area More active when looking at faces 9 Frontal Lobes Regions of the cerebral cortexat the front of the brainimportant for movement and higherlevel psychological processes associated with the prefrontal cortex i Primary motor cortex move body s muscles h Prefrontal Cortex The front most portion of the frontal lobes especially prominent in humans important for attention working memory decision making appropriate social behavior and personality i The Prefrontal Cortex in closeup i Lobotomy form of brain surgery that deliberately damaged the prefrontal cortex 7 Splitting the Brain splits the Mind a Split Brain A condition that occurs when the corpus callosum is surgically cut and the two hemispheres of the brain do not receive information directly from each other i Hemispheres function as completely independent entities ii Left better with language iii Right better with spatial relationships Section 33 How does the Brain communicate with the Body 1 The Peripheral Nervous System Includes the Somatic and Autonomic Systems a Somatic Nervous System SNS lt transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system and the skin muscles and joints b Autonomic Nervous System ANSlt transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system and the body s glands and internal organs 2 Sympathetic and Parasympathetic a Two signals that travel from CNS to organs and glands controlling their activity b Sympathetic Division A division of the Autonomic nervous system it prepares the body for action c Parasympathetic Division A division of the Autonomic nervous system it returns the body to its resting state 3 The Endocrine System communicates through Hormones a Endocrine System A communication system that uses hormones to in uence thoughts behaviors and actions i Slow and uses hormones b Hormones Chemical substances released from endocrine glands that travel through the bloodstream to targeted tissues the tissues are subsequently in uenced by the hormones c Hormone s effects on Sexual Behavior i Gonads The main endocrine glands involved in sexual behavior in males the testes in females the ovades 1 Testosterone in males 2 Estrogen in females 4 Actions of the Nervous System and Endocrine System are Coordinated a Pituitary Gland A gland located at the base of the hypothalamus it sends hormonal signals to other endocrine glands controlling their release of hormones Section 34 How Does the Brain Change 1 Plasticity A property of the brain that allows it to change as a result of experience of injury 2 Experience FineTunes Neural Connections aSuch plasticity has critical periods in which particular experiences must occur for development to proceed normally 3 Females and Males Brains are Mostly Similar but May Have Revealing Differences a Males have larger brains than females iNot necessarily better because longer distances between brain regions can translate into slower communication b Men and women may do the same task using different parts of their brain iFemaIes languagerelated brain regions iiMaIes spatialrelated brain regions 4The Brain Rewires itself Throughout life a Change in the Strength of Connections Underlies Learning iFire together wire together 1 Burning in of an experience 2 ngraining of habits iiProduction of new neurons is called neurogenesis 1 Hippocampus b Experience Changes the Brain iFunctions of portions of the cerebral cortex shift in response to their activity 5 The Brain Can Recover from Injury a It reorganizes in response to brain damage b Starts immediately and continues for years c Radical hemispherectomy surgical procedure removes an entire cerebral hemisphere i Remaining hemisphere takes on functions of missing hemisphere 1 Performed only in kids Section 35 What is the Genetic Basis of Psychological Science 1Gene expression Whether a particular gene is turned on or off 2A of Human Development has a Genetic Basis aThe genome provides the options and the environment determines which option is taken bChromosomes Structures within the cell body that are made up of DNA segments of which comprise individual genes LGenes The units of heredity that help determine the characteristics of an organism iEach gene specifies an exact instruction to manufacture a distinct polypeptide One or more polypeptide s make up a protein 1 Proteins are basic chemicals that make up the structure of cells and direct their activities iiWe do not have an abundant amount of genes yet how those genes are expressed is what makes us so complex 3 Heredity Involves Passing Along Genes Through Reproduction a Dominant gene A gene that is expressed in the offspring whenever it is present b Recessive gene A gene that is expressed only when it is matched with a similar gene from the other parent c Genotype and Phenotype iGenotype The genetic constitution of an organism determined at the moment of conception iiPhenotype Observable physical characteristic which result from both genetic and environmental in uences 1Genetic and nature in uence 2 Environment and nurture in uence dPolygenic Effects iPolygenic the trait is in uenced by many genes 4Genotypic Variation ls Created by Sexual Reproduction a Genetic Mutations Advantageous disadvantageous or both iMutations can be adaptive or maladaptive 5Genes affect behavior a Behavioral genetics the study of how genes and environment interact to in uence psychological activity b Behavioral Genetics Methods iMonozygotic twins Also called identical twins twin siblings that result from one zygote splitting in tow and therefore share the same genes iiDizygotic twins Also called fraternal twins twin siblings that result from tow separately fertilized eggs and therefore are no more similar genetically than non twin siblings LUnderstanding Heritability iHeritabilityA statistical estimate of the extent to which variation in a trait within a population is due to gene cs 1 Depends on variation the measure of the overall difference among a group of people for that particular trait 6Social and Environmental Contexts ln uence Genetic Expression a Epigenetics iEnvironment is seen as layered over genetics iiProcess by which the environment affects genetic expression 7Genetic Expression Can Be Modi ed aChanging even a single gene can dramatically change behavior bOptogenetics i Provides precise control over when a neuron res I Light with gene alterations
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