Psych Chapter 4 Notes
Psych Chapter 4 Notes Psych 1000
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ally Smith on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1000 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Dennis Miller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (PSYCH 1000) in Psychlogy at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
PSYCH 1000 Chapter 4 Notes Consciousness Section 4.1 What is Consciousness? 1. People can be conscious of their surroundings even when they do not appear to be. 2. Conscious experiences are associated with brain activity 3. Consciousness is a Subjective Experience a. Consciousness- moment-by-moment subjective experiences. b. Brain and mind are inseparable i. Activity of neurons in the brain produces the contents of consciousness ii. For each type of content there is an associated pattern of brain activity. c. Conscious experiences exist but their subjective nature make them difficult to study d. No way to know whether each person’s experience of a thing is the same or whether each person is using the same words to describe a different experience. 4. Conscious Awareness Involves Attention a. The mind is a continuous stream and thoughts float on that stream. b. All of us can execute routine or automatic tasks (driving, walking, understanding meanings of words) that are so well learned that we do them without much attention. i. Paying too much attention can interfere c. Controlled processing is slower but help people perform in complex or novel situations i. Require attention d. Selective Attention i. Filter theory 1. People have a limited capacity for sensory information. 2. Attention is a gate that opens for important information and closes for irrelevant information. 3. Some stimuli demand attention a. Ex: muscle cramp b. Readily capture attention because they provide important information about potential threats in an environment. 4. Unattended information is still processed at least to some extent. e. Change Blindness i. Change Blindness- A failure to notice large changes in one’s environment ii. Older people are especially likely not to notice a change in one’s environment iii. We can attend to a limited amount of information iv. Our perceptions of the world are often inaccurate and have little awareness of our perceptual failures. f. Laptops in the Classroom i. Increased difficulty for instructors to hold student’s attention. 5. Unconscious Processing Influences Behavior a. Mental activity below the level of consciousness can influence behavior. b. Freudian Slip- occurs when an unconscious thought is suddenly expressed at an inappropriate time or in an inappropriate social context c. Subliminal perception- occurs when stimuli get processed by sensory systems but, because of their short durations or subtle form, do not reach consciousness. d. People are affected by events they are not aware of e. Subliminal cues may be most powerful when they work on people’s motivational states. 6. Brain Activity gives rise to Consciousness a. Different types of sensory information are processed by different brain areas: the particular type of neural activity determines the particular type of awareness b. The Global Workspace Model i. Posits that consciousness arises as a function of which brain circuits are active. ii. Presents no single area of the brain as responsible for general “awareness” 1. Different areas of the brain deal with different types of information. c. Areas of Awareness i. Prefrontal cortex: I understand plans ii. Frontal Motor cortex: Im all about movement iii. Parietal lobe: Im aware of space iv. Occipital lobe: I see things v. Temporal lobe: I hear things. d. Changes in consciousness following brain injury i. Most people who regain consciousness after such injuries do so within a few days, but some people do not regain consciousness for weeks. 1. Sleep/wake cycles- they open their eyes and appear to be awake, close their eyes and appear to be asleep but they do not seem to respond to surroundings. 2. Lasts longer than a month- persistent vegetative state ii. Brain can sometimes process information in coma iii. Between vegetative state and full consciousness is the minimally conscious state 1. Able to make some deliberate movements 2. Try to communicate iv. Brain death- irreversible loss of brain function Section 4.2 What is Sleep? 1. Circadian rhythms- brain activity and other physiological processes are regulated into patterns. a. Body temperatures, hormone levels, sleep/wake cycles b. Influenced by the cycles of light and dark. 2. Information about light detected by the eyes is sent to a small region of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus. a. Then sends signals to tiny structure called pineal gland i. Then secretes melatonin, a hormone that travels through the bloodstream and affects various receptors in the body. ii. Bright light suppresses production of melatonin iii. Darkness triggers its release. 3. SLEEPLESS, gene regulates a protein that reduces action potentials in the brain a. Loss of this gene leads to 80% reduction in sleep 4. Sleep is an Altered State of Consciousness a. During sleep your mind is analyzing potential dangers, controlling body movements, and shifting body parts to maximize comfort. b. EEG measures brain activity. i. Beta waves- short frequent irregular brain signals ii. Alpha waves- focus their attention on something or relax, brain activity slows and becomes more regular. c. Stages of sleep i. Stage 1: drift off to sleep (theta waves) 1. Easily be aroused 2. See fantastical images or geometric shapes, jerking limbs or sensation of falling ii. Stage 2: breathing becomes more regular and become less sensitive to external stimulation. Really asleep (theta waves) 1. Occasional bursts of activity called sleep spindles and large waves called K-complexes. a. Signals from brain mechanisms involved with shutting out the external world and keeping people asleep b. Abrupt noises= k-complexes c. As people age and sleep lightly, show fewer sleep spindles. iii. Stage 3 & 4: deep sleep (delta waves) 1. Large regular brain patterns called delta waves and are often referred to as slow-wave sleep. iv. REM sleep (beta waves) 1. REM sleep-The stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, dreaming, and paralysis of motor systems 2. Paradoxical sleep because of the paradox of a sleeping body with an active brain. 3. Most of the body’s muscles are paralyzed. 4. Relation to dreaming v. Sleep disorders 1. Insomnia- sleep disorder in which people’s mental health and ability to function are compromised by their inability to sleep. a. Cause is worrying about sleep 2. Pseudoinsomina- dream they are not sleeping 3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea- while asleep a person stops breathing for short periods. a. Sleepers throat closes during these periods b. Middle aged men is most common c. Unaware of their condition in most cases d. Associated with cardiovascular problems and stroke. 4. Narcolepsy- excessive sleepiness occurs during normal waking hours. a. Muscle paralysis that accompanies REM sleep. b. Genetic condition that affects the neural transmission of a specific neurotransmitter in the hypothalamus. 5. REM behavior disorder- normal paralysis accompanying REM sleep is disabled a. Act out dreams while sleeping. b. Elderly males 6. Somnambulism- (sleepwalking) a. Common among young children b. Occurs during slow wave sleep 5. Sleep is an adaptive Behavior a. Adaptive for 3 functions: i. Restoration 1. Sleep allows the body to rest and repair itself 2. Growth hormone released primarily during sleep facilitates the repair of damaged tissue. 3. Replenish energy stores and also strengthens the immune system. 4. Help brain clear out metabolic by-products of neural activity 5. Sleep deprivation is dangerous because it makes people prone to microsleeps in which they fall asleep during the day for periods ranging from a few seconds to a minute 6. Sleep deprivation one useful purpose: depression is alleviated sometimes ii. Following of circadian rhythms 1. Evolved to keep animals quiet and inactive during times of the day when there is greatest danger, usually dark 2. Need only a limited amount of time each day to accomplish the necessities of survival and spend rest of time inactive iii. Facilitation of learning 1. Neural connections made during the day are strengthened during sleep 2. Slow wave and REM sleep appear important for learning to take place 3. People who dream about task may be especially likely to perform better 6. People Dream While Sleeping a. Dreams- products of an altered state of consciousness b. REM drams and Non REM dreams i. REM dreams are more likely to be bizarre 1. Intense emotions, visual and auditory hallucinations, and an uncritical acceptance of illogical events. 2. Areas of the brain show increased activity where others show decreased activity 3. Activation of brain structures associated with motivation, emotion, and reward, activation of visual association area, deactivation of various regions of prefrontal cortex ii. Non REM dreams are often dull 1. Mundane activities 2. General deactivation of many brain regions c. What do dreams mean? i. Freud- dreams contain hidden content that represents unconscious conflicts within the mind of the dreamer. ii. Manifest content- dream the way the dreamer remembers it iii. Latent content- what the dream symbolizes iv. Daily life experiences influence the contents of dreams. d. Activation-Synthesis Theory i. Activation-synthesis theory- random brain activity occurs during sleep and that this neural firing can activate mechanisms that normally interpret sensory input. The sleeping mind tries to make sense of the resulting sensory activity by synthesizing it with stored memories. 1. Dreams are side effects of mental processes produced by random neural firing. Section 4.3 What is Altered Consciousness? 1. Hypnosis is Induced Through Suggestion a. Hypnosis- social interaction during which a person, responding to suggestions, experiences changes in memory, perception, and/or voluntary action. b. Posthypnotic suggestion- usually accompanied by the instruction to not remember the suggestion. c. Many people cannot be hypnotized d. Theories of Hypnosis i. Some believe a person under hypnosis plays the role of a hypnotized person. ii. Sociocognitive theory of hypnosis, hypnotized people behave as they expect hypnotized people to behave. iii. Neodissociation theory of hypnosis- the importance of social context to hypnosis but it views the hypnotic state as an altered state. e. Hypnosis for pain i. Hypnotic analgesia- form of pain reduction ii. Hypnosis is effective in dealing with immediate pain and chronic pain iii. Patient can be taught self-hypnosis to improve recovery from surgery iv. Changing the patient’s interpretation of pain instead of diminishing it. 2. Meditation Produces Relaxation a. Meditation- mental procedure that focuses attention on an external object or on a sense of tranquility. i. Concentrative meditation 1. Focus on one thing ii. Mindfulness meditation 1. Let your thoughts flow freely paying attention to them but trying not to react to them. b. TM involves meditating with great concentration for 20 minutes twice a day. i. Lower blood pressure, less stress, changes in hormonal responses underlying stress. c. Zen meditation might help preserve cognitive functioning as people age 3. People can Lose Themselves in Activities a. Exercise, Religious Prayer, and flow i. Music can bring an energizing shift in consciousness. ii. Runner’s high- state is partially mediated by physiological processes. Occurs because shift in consciousness. iii. Religious ceremonies create euphoria or religious ecstasy. 1. Chanting, dancing, or other behaviors for people to lose themselves. iv. Flow is a “particular kind of experience that is so engrossing and enjoyable that it is worth doing for its own sake even though it may have no consequence outside itself. 1. Person might perform a particular task out of fascination rather than out of a desire for a reward. 2. Completely absorbing and satisfying b. Escaping the Self i. People get tired of dealing with problems and try to use escapist pursuits. ii. Difference is between escaping and engaging. iii. Escape self; forget their troubles, drink alcohol, take drugs, play video game, watch TV, internet, text 1. Avoid feeling bad about themselves iv. Self destructive behaviors such as binge eating, unsafe sex, suicide v. Lowered self-awareness may reduce long term planning, reduce meaningful thinking, and bring about uninhibited actions. Section 4.4 How do Drugs Affect Consciousness? 1. People Use-and Abuse-Many Psychoactive Drugs a. “recreational” purposes: alter physical sensations, levels of consciousness, thoughts, moods, behaviors b. Addiction- drug use that remains compulsive despite its negative consequences. c. Psychoactive drugs- mind altering substances that people typically take for recreational purposes. i. Activating neurotransmitter systems: 1. Imitation brain’s natural neurotransmitters or changing the activity of a particular neurotransmitter receptors. d. Stimulants- drugs that increase behavioral and mental activity i. Heighten activity of the central nervous system ii. Activate sympathetic nervous system: 1. Increasing heart rate, blood pressure iii. Improve mood, but can cause restlessness iv. Ex: amphetamines, methamphetamine, cocaine v. Some work by interfering with the normal reuptake of dopamine by releasing neuron- allowing dopamine to remain in the synapse and prolonging its effects. vi. Activation of dopamine receptors involved in drug use: 1. Associated with greater reward or increased liking 2. Greater desire to take drug, even if not pleasurable e. Depressants- reduce behavioral and mental activity by depressing the Central Nervous System i. Alcohol ii. Anti-anxiety drugs iii. In high doses they can induce sleep f. Opiates- called narcotics i. Heroin, morphine, codeine ii. Various drugs are able to bind with endorphin receptors and help relieve pain. iii. Intense feelings of pleasure, relaxation, and euphoria iv. Dual physical effects: increase pleasure by binding with opiate receptors, and increase wanting of the drug by activating dopamine receptors v. Heroin used to be marketed by Bayer vi. Long term use is associated with attention and memory problems g. Hallucinogens- produce alterations in cognition, mood, and perception. i. LSD 1. “Trip” lasts for around 12 hours 2. Distorted sense of time ii. Psilocybin mushrooms produce hallucinogenic effects. h. Amphetamines and Methamphetamine i. Amphetamines are stimulants that increase dopamine in the synapse. (reduce fatigue) 1. Weight loss and staying awake 2. Insomnia, anxiety, potential for addiction 3. Medical uses: ADHD & narcolepsy ii. Methamphetamine is a stimulant 1. Easy to make from common over the counter drugs 2. Blocking reuptake of dopamine and increasing its release, it produces high levels of dopamine in synapse 3. Effect are prolonged 4. Damages various brain structures i. Cocaine i. Stimulant ii. Experience a wave of confidence iii. Increasing dopamine in synapse iv. Large quantities can lead to paranoia, psychotic behavior, and violence v. Coca-Cola was first made with cocaine and now used with leaves from which cocaine has been removed. j. Alcohol i. Activating GABA receptors ii. Inhibits neural activity iii. GABA reception is primary mechanism by which alcohol interferes with motor coordination and slowed reaction time iv. In college students they are increased risk for exposure to AIDS and STD’s because of intoxicated sex v. Men drink more than women 1. Women do not metabolize alcohol as quickly 2. Less socially acceptable vi. Can interfere with cognitive processing of threat cues, so that anxiety-provoking events are less troubling when intoxicated. vii. Expectations about alcohol are learned early in life 1. Associated with fun and celebrations viii. Increase sexual arousal but decreases performance k. Marijuana i. Most widely used illicit drug ii. Can have effects of stimulant, depressant or hallucinogen iii. THC produces a relaxed mental state, uplifted mood, and some cognitive distortions iv. Some it impairs vision and others it makes it more vivid v. Decreases reaction times, impairs motor coordination, impairs memory formation, impairs recall of recently learned information. vi. Frequent users may get high on a lower dose vii. The first high is not as good as frequent user’s highs. viii. Cannabinoid receptors- adjust mental activity and perhaps alter pain perception ix. Large concentration of receptors in hippocampus explains why it impairs memory x. Long term use is associated with smaller hippocampus and amygdala. xi. Medical properties: cancer patients, AIDS patients l. MDMA i. Produces energizing effect but also causes hallucinations ii. Ecstasy or Molly iii. Less dopamine activity and more serotonin activity 1. Hallucinations iv. Cause damage to brain regions v. Memory problems and diminished ability to perform complex tasks. vi. Potential benefits for PTSD 1. Promotes feelings of compassion and trust and reduces negative emotions that people have about traumatic experiences, even when drug wears off. vii. Many pills being sold contain other dangerous chemicals 2. Addiction Has Physical and Psychological Aspects a. Physical: tolerance b. Failing to ingest substance leads to withdrawal c. Addiction’s Causes i. Dopamine activity in limbic system (wanting property) ii. Prefrontal cortex, amygdala, thalamus, hippocampus, insula iii. Adolescents high in sensation seeking are more likely to associate with deviant peer groups and to use alcohol, tobacco, or drugs iv. Inherited predisposition to sensation seeking may predict behaviors v. Genetic components of addiction vi. No single “alcoholism” or “addiction” gene vii. Cluster of characteristics viii. Social learning ix. Want to fit in x. Parents do drugs, smoke d. Addiction’s Context i. Drug abuse amongst soldiers was epidemic 1. When they came home they no longer needed the drugs though. 2. Did not have same motivations for taking the drug
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