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Biology 120 Notes: Genetic and molecular Biology

by: Jamisha Evans

Biology 120 Notes: Genetic and molecular Biology BIO 120

Marketplace > Western Kentucky University > Biology > BIO 120 > Biology 120 Notes Genetic and molecular Biology
Jamisha Evans
GPA 3.71

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture from last class( be sure to review DNA, RNA, and proteins for previous lectures which can be found in my list of notes)
Sahi, Shivendra
Class Notes
Biology120: (Genetic and molecular biology) Sexual reproduction and meisosis
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamisha Evans on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 120 at Western Kentucky University taught by Sahi, Shivendra in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see BIOL CONC CELLS METAB GENETICS in Biology at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 04/09/16
Section 4: Genetic and Molecular Biology Chapter 11 (Notes) Sexual reproduction and meiosis  Meiosis • Meiosis: type of nuclear division which results in half as many chromosomes as the parent cell (Reduction division). ◊ Leads to formation of eggs and sperm (gametogenesis) • Fertilization: process when sperm and egg unite sperm and egg ◊ Leads to offspring that are genetically distinct from each other and from their parents ◊ Each cell produced by meiosis receives a different gene combination • Genes are located on chromosomes ◊ Mistakes during meiosis result in cells containing the wrong number of chromosomes  Chromosomes and autosomes • Karyotype: number and types pf chromosomes present in an organism (basically a picture of someone’s chromosomes) • Sex chromosomes: The 23 chromosome which determine the sex of the individual. (1 pair) ◊ All other chromosomes are autosomes (22 pairs) • Humans have 46 chromosomes in every cell except their gametes • Chromosomes carry genes ◊ Gene: a section of DNA that influences one or more hereditary traits in an individual • Different types of genes are called alleles EXAMPE: Eye shape (gene) Narrow or round eyes (alleles)  Homologous chromosomes • Homologous chromosomes: Chromosomes of the same type (also called homologs) ◊ Homologs carry the same genes in the same locations but each one may contain different alleles.  Concept of ploidy • Ploidy: number of each type of chromosome present (n, 2n, 3n, etc.) ◊ Haploid (n): Organism whose cells contain just one of each type of chromosomes (ex: gametes) ◊ Diploid (2n): organisms whose cells contain two versions of each type of chromosome (one paternal chromosome and one maternal chromosome) ◊ Polypoid (3n,4n, etc..): Organisms with three or more versions of each type of chromosomes


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