Introduction to Sociology
Introduction to Sociology
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Lecture 9 Gender 31514 439 PM Our actions are always accountable to gender expectations We constantly act out amp communicate gender Fem equal 2statements doing gender takaki class conflict within white society Key Concepts Feminism Patriarchy objectification Social Construction of Gender Doing Gender Femininity Masculinity Sexism Old and New imam and Eve Eve ruined humanity New 2005 AD 2005 0 Harvard president implies women are inferior in the special case of science amp engineering there are issues of intrinsic aptitude among women Lawrence Summers President of Harvard University 2005 0 Soon after women were recruited to work for Obama administration Statistics 70 out of 435 people in Congress are Women 16 out of 100 people serving in Senate are Women 464 of the paid labour force 8 women headed fortune 500 companies Feminism Feminism is the radical idea that women are people the belief that women amp men are equal amp should be valued equally amp have equal rights a political cultural amp academic movement constantly reflecting on your role as a male or female that sometimes women are equally responsible for this system of pat archy Patriarchy A hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural political amp economic structures are controlled by men Through patriarchy men use their power amp resources to learn amp establish control 0 From a young age boys are taught this Social Construction of Gender Gender is not just a result of biology but highly dependent on social amp historical processes objectification In our society women are often seen amp used as objects of pleasure 0 Men get the prettiest girl kiss her blah blah blah Doing Gender Gender is something people do in their daily interactions 0 Ex Posture tone of voice Gender performance is dictated by expectations of others o Ex Expect males amp females to act a certain way Accountability we know we will be judged by others We do gender every day all the time It39s an ongoing activity We can39t avoid doing gender We do gender in interactions We do gender in the presence of others amp also in virtualelectronic ways 0 FB X0 hearts girls 0 Women post their best pictures Men post pictures where they wear sunglasses and looking macho Gender is a master identity not just a role we selectively perform Media and Gender Socialization On television Male characters typically are more aggressive constructive amp direct Females are deferential toward others or use manipulation to get their way Section Gender 31514 439 PM Sex Biological Male and Female Genetics XY XX Gender Social Masculine vs Feminine Males can be feminine amp females can be masculine 0 When this happens there39s negative social consequences amp sexuality Know that this is socially constructed bc other cultures have diff views amp this changes over history Functionalist Masculinity amp femininity say this is how we divide labor Conflict Theorists This is about male power women are frail weak Institutions amp Media keep enforcing masculinity amp femininity Industrial Aspect Creates classes based on leisure time White people People are suppose to look tan In the past if a white person was tan it was bad meant you worked Today tan live in a nice place social status Lecture 10 What is your Race 31514 439 PM Final Exercise week 10 Observe an event or organization on campus that aims to create social change What is Race How is Race Socially Constructed Samy Sosa Black in the US Mixed race Mulatto in Dominican Republic White in Haiti Taino indigenous in Puerto Rico Different countries define race differently Race is not real but its consequences can be devastating Race A socially constructed categorization of races that describes phenotype not genotype Race changes based on political economic cultural and historical events No taxonomic significance 0 We rely on fok taxonomy White like Me Tim Wise Lecture 1 1 31514 439 PM Final is not going to be cumulative Read Ronald article Tim Wise To understand race is not just about understanding minorities or people of color 0 Minorities are not the majority but in some areas they are We have to understand overpriviege we have to understand whiteness 0 Main point that Tim Wise is making Whiteness An ideology ideas amp practices tied to social status that provides privilege for those people labeled white The process by which the non white other is created for the benefit of whites 0 We create systems of stratification based on color Racism isn39t about individual acts of meanness it is about structural advantages amp disadvantages placed on people based on perceptions of their race Ex Department of Housing in the 5039s segregated whites amp blacks Claire Bredenoord Artist photographer UCSB student Thesis isolated by privilege whites learn apathy to race due to its lack of consequence in their lives Racial apathy then reinforces that isolation by maintaining social distance between races that was caused by oppressive structural inequalities of the past and is now failing to foster an accurate understanding Peggy McIntosh I can go shopping alone most of the time pretty well assured that I will not be followed or harassed o Privilege of feeling comfortable shopping The Master Narrative of US History Explicit and implicit messages that teach the world that America is built by great white men amp that to be a true American is to be white Historical examples o Benjamin Franklin brings up separation Section 31514 439 PM Race 2 White 2 Black 392 AsianAsian Pacific islander Ethnicity 2 Hispanic Nationality 2 Indian 2 American 2 Vietnamese Social construction of race is not fixed Ex Jamaica would say Daraka TA is white Stereotypes Whiteness o Whiteness is defined by the non white o Racial profiling o Housing Big chunk of money that goes towards school comes from property taxes Things that happened a long time ago affect racism Privilege to not see race Culture 31514 439 PM UCSB culture bikes and skateboards Culture Symbolic interactionalism Erving Goffman o Impression management Soc culture econ capital Culture System of conceptions expressed in symbolic forms by means of which people communicate perpetuate develop their knowledge and altitudes towards ife Geertz ex Hop hop culture technology status symbol concept ideals phrases Da Bomb wine tasting certain class place not IV ex Sports 0 metaphors that come from it got 3 base give me a ball park price homerun to most young its sec home runs parents believe kids get homerun when they get good grades 0 homophobia term he plays for the other team ex Knowledge Culture is created through interactions Connects to interpretive sociology Symbolic interactionism We should examine the meanings we put on to things Study symbols we create in everyday life We act towards ideas concepts amp symbols based on the meanings we give them Observe how humans interact in natural settings Symbolic Interactionism Ex Social construction of reality Symbols Norms Culture Gestures Rituals Face work Meaning is not in your head its in your interaction Meaning is inter subjective Look on slide for diagram Erving Goffman believes Looking at the minute social systems of everyday interactions How much of human behaviors is to impress others 0 To contradict the conduct of others We present ourselves in a light that is favorable to us Dramaturgical Analysis Studies interaction order 0 Way people interact when they come in contact with one another 0 face work behavior around certain people 0 impression management occurs because we want to be accepted I liked Section 31514 439 PM Culture Traditions legacies behaviors practices passed on from generation to generation holidays Norms rules unspoken laws for which there are consequences if you break them Customs repeated behaviors that are common to a culture Values amp Morals expressed or codified set standard Religion 0 Ex Eucharist bread and wine connection to God Language gestures Meaning of Symbos anguage communication gestures 0 Ex Those shows are cool not talking about temperature 0 Have to have this in order for all of the above to work Material Objects connected to culture Food ways you eat and what you eat Rituals practice repeated has symbolic feeling 0 Ex Dowry Taboo Something forbidden culturally Globalization Concepts Globalization 31514 439 PM Modern Word System Transnational Capitalist Classes Use info from Robinson readings 1 page of notes for final just like midterm Globalization A process by which local economies societies amp cultures become integrated through a global network of communication transportation amp trade Is characterized today by Energy amp Communication Revolutions Ex IV is local but is affected by globalization iclickers program paypal Ex Global warming goba energy is creating so much effect on atmosphere Benefits Globalization can bring about benefits for the world39s population 0 Spreading Democracy freedom of speech freedom to assemble Movement of People amp Goods if you want a product from out of state or country you can order it online Growth in Developing Countries create one economy where everyone is trading amp one country produces a product that all countries can benefit from sugar from Cuba Diffusion of Knowledge ideas spreading everywhere Interdependence nations become dependent on each other gt incentive not to create war Global competition encourages innovation China and India are catching up 9 US might invest more in education to develop the next generation of scientific innovators Gov can work together to solve crisis of disease war amp natural disasters Global Social Movements Occupy Wall Street Arab Spring o Cheaper Goods We worry about the people in the factory bc without them out products our going to cost more Nega ves We are here because you are there 0 global corps take over amp make immigrants come to US Global Wealth Supply Chains Most garments amp fresh produce go to only the wealthy countries 0 Globalization might appear to be an even process throughout the globe but it really becomes an uneven system in which the world39s wealth becomes absorbed by a small of people You can39t understand the US economic downturn without understanding global capitalism Modern World System Developing countries are not exploited by individual countries but by the whole capitalist profit seeking system in A Modern World System The MWS is a unified system of capitalism composed of powerful nations Have a military to protect MWS 3 Zones in the MWS 1 The coredeveloped nations these control world trade amp monopolies manufactured goods 2 The semiperipheral zone eg Brazil South Africa urban areas like the core but large areas of rural poverty like the periphery i Controlled by the core but also control peripheral countries 3 The peripheral countries eg Most of Africa they provide primary products for both the semi periphery amp the core Hierarchies in the Modern WorldSystem European vs Non European Capitalist vs Worker Male vs Female Heterosexual vs Homosexual 0 Christian vs NonChristian William Robinson Argues that we are in a transnational stage of capitalism o Transnationa without national boundaries people within the US dominating the globe as a class Transnational Capitalist Classes 31514 439 PM Expectations for Readings most likely in final Takaki o How whitewhite class conflict generated the impetus for the institutionalization of slavery solidified slavery as an institution amp a new racial order Robinson o Explanation of Transnational Capitalist Classes 0 How TCC theory is different from modern word system theory MWS theory still finds that rich countries are exploit the rest of the globe TCC theory nations do not matter as much Groups of people scattered throughout the globe institutions or billionaires a class that rule the globe Takaki p 148 of reader To diminish the presence amp power of a white proletariat armed amp numerous African slaves seemed to offer a solution to the problem of class conflict within white society Slavery enabled planters to develop a disfranchised amp disarmed black work force Negative images of blacks that had predated the institutionalization of slavery in English America dynamically interacted with economic amp political developments on the stage called Virginia intersection of Race amp Class How does gender come into play with this When black women are raped it wasn39t considered a rape If mother was a slave but father wasn39t children would be considered a slave too Review MWS MWS developing countries are not exploited by individual countries but by the whole capitalist profit seeing system in a MWS The MWS is unified system of capitalism composed of powerful nations Who are the 1 o video World Systems Analysis o Core countries that control the rest of the world39s population William Robinson o But not all of us in core countries control the world39s resources only a small group o Transnational Capitalist Classes scattered throughout the globe Transnational Capitalist Classes The small number of individuals scattered throughout the globe who control the world39s resources through economic amp social power These individuals have the power to move beyond nation states amp local institutions a class group grounded in new global markets amp circuits of accumulation rather than national markets amp circuits As national states are captured by transnational capitalist forces they tend to serve the interests of global over local accumulation processes p 18 World Bank WB amp International Monetary Fund MWF video Give loans to developing countries in exchange for free raw materials Using debt as an instrument to manipulate those countries resources amp TCC s run this system of debt International Monetary Fund MWS theory Tool for dominant countries to exploit others TCC Tool for dominant transnational classes to exploit other classes How TCC theory is diff from MWS theory Not an inter state system where distinct nations compete with each other for superiority Human agency is crucial here Ex There s class warfare all right but it39s my class the rich class that39s making war amp we39re winning Warren Buffet one of the richest people on Earth Is human nature to look out for our sef interest Look out for ourselves amp our family even though we know we are exploiting other peoplecountries Section 31514 439 PM Globalization Countries having influence on one another Economic integration Sharing goodsservices amp capital across boarders Speed intensity amp industrialization Capitalization has always been global Race to the bottom o Countries compete with one another to lower standards Increasing Wages Insist on locals hired Minimum wage Union benefits safetyconditions Ban child labor Environmental regulations Taxes 0 Triangle Shirt Waist Fire Debt Trap In debt so TAKE OUT MORE LOANS LOL Interest rate on debt is higher than gross national product TCC Group of people who are in power over a country and who are about this global system Benefit from the system Free Trade Agreements with other countries to trade Tariffs on imported and exported products Lecture 15 31514 439 PM Guest Speaker Mr Ross Final Uses images to make social change Juvenile in Justice Doing Gender 0 Not something specific selectively use in interation with others Feminism 0 Means as a practical manner and social movement To be seen as equal in a patriarchal society Social construction of Race 0 Takiki Tim Wise video 0 Tie own examples Whiteness 0 Definition process RonaTakaki 0 What39s expected on the slide 0 Class conflict racialization institutionalize slavery Goffman Impression Management 0 Ex Pokerface o Interactions make up society we perform for others 0 Behavior gives us positive feedback Transnational Classes Robinson Modern World System Lecture 16 31514 439 PM Final Review How does the sociological imagination apply to the past 5 weeks of class VERY IMPORTANT Doing Gender Our actions are always accountable to gender expectations we constantly act amp communicate gender How does this connect to Goffman Gender performance is dictated by expectations of others Accountability we know we will be judged by others We do gender everyday It39s an ongoing activity WE can39t avoid doing gender We do gender interactions We do gender in the presence of others amp in virtualelectronic ways 0 Ex Bros before Hoes Obama amp Hilary Clinton Talks about gender Hoes amp race Bro Matrix of Domination Race gt Class gt Gender gt Race gt Class gt Gender Race A socially constructed categorization process that describes phenotype not genotype Race changes based on political economic cultural and historical events No taxonomic significance 0 We rely on Folk taxonomy 0 We look at people and judge them based on stereotypes 0 Ex Light brown people are considered Black 0 Ex Sammy Sosa Racism isn39t about individual acts of meanness it is about structural advantages amp disadvantages placed on people based on perceptions of their race Whiteness An ideology tied to social status that provides privilege for those people labeled white When race is created by other it is typically created to benefit whites Culture Culture influences our interactions and behaviors Culture influences our epistemology Institutions deploy culture Culture determines who we become we manipulate culture to control everyday interaction Goffman We create impressions to define the situations we are in society is organized around the principal that any individual who possesses certain social characteristics has a moral right to expect that others will value amp treat him in an appropriate way Erving Goffman amp Dramaturgical Analysis How much human behavior is to impress others 0 To control the conduct of others We present ourselves in a light that is favorable to us We perform on a stage where the goal is to gain acceptance from audience Jeremy Rifkin The Empathic Civilization Energy Communication Consciousness PhotosynthesisAni VoiceoraTraditions Mythological mal Irrigationalhydrolo Written script Theological gical Coasteamanima Printmass distribution Ideological team labor Fossil fuels TelecommunicationEectrica Psychological Early Electronic Decentralizedrene Sophisticated electronicnetwork Dramaturgical wablesolar wind technologies geothermal Thinks we are performing to create a better world Dramaturgical Consciousness Rifkin A way of thinking amp being in which we act as global citizens where the world is our stage Instantaneous media abundance of new information amp global identities have created a mass audience with choices we can easily get involved through participation 0 Giving instant evaluation of news ike button adding voices for support or dissent acting as a mass towards global goals Each individual almost literally now has the power to challenge the present culture activism bring down chaos on society altruism create innovative change green technological growth and re establish social order relationships within an international community Your generation the Millennial Generation has the tools and potential to move us into biosphere consciousness But some challenges stand in the way generation me What was our method this quarter Methods Latin for journey Last Section 31514 439 PM Patriarchy The hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural political amp economic structures are controlled by men Doing Gender Idea that gender is something people do in their daily interactions is referred to as Tim Wise Which of the following people believes that understanding race is not just about understanding nonwhites but also about understanding over priviege and whiteness Impression Management Erving Goffman is a central figure in modern sociology who studied the minute social systems of everyday interactions What is one of his ideas Powerful countries Transnational Capitalist Classes theory is diff from the Modern World System theory in that the MWS is unified system of TCC class Empathy is the invisible hand Rifkin To empathize is to civilize and to civilize is to empathize Transnational Capitalist Class can39t look at the economy as poor and rich Know Rifkin Chart Dramaturgical live to perform for other people the way we communicate is through performance line between audience and performer is blurred ex Comment on FB the invisible hand of empathy that is driving things 0 empathy being able to feel what other people feel we are successful because we communicate and build communities link between energy production and culture and the way we see the world Globalization Tell the story and why is there criticism how does it work Takiki class into understanding of race Lecture 3 31514 439 PM What is false consciousness Based on lectures the mystification of social issues amp the inability to connect personal troubles with public issues Understanding conflict btwn economic classes Higher classes set up systems to keep the other classes fighting each other Conformity amp Obedience Stanley Milgrim Study obedience among Germans Thought Germans had an internal flaw willing to listen to authority In modern society obedience is a central mechanism for organizing our social world o Readiness to obey authority to matter what outrageous acts are requested Locked into a structure and we do not have the skill to disengage ourselves Americans are ocked into a structure amp do not have the skills or inner resources to disengage themselves So much rationalization in modern society we live out world in living boxes that do not connect to the real world Socialization Teaches us conformity and obedience The process by which we learn norms ideas and behaviors that make us feel part of society Required in order to participate in our society Creates society Social Norms and Socializations vid Elevator When we follow social norms we are going away from moral responsibility Social Institutions Any institution in society that works to socialize the people within it Institutions are the rules of the game in a society or more formally are the humanly devised constraints that shape human interaction They structure our social political amp economic experience in MS 19 0 walk into a cassroom student 0 teacher walks around don t make eye contact weird Social Construction collective reality developed by people agreeing to behave in certain ways and follow certain rules people shape reality through social interaction construction of reality changes depending on history of society 0 50 years ago a Latino would not be a professor could not get the education ex Letter of congrats to Rios more authority prestige people recognize him higher expectations of teaching test to see if he deserves award Social Construction of Reality If men and women define situations as real they are real in their consequences WI Thomas authority conformity amp interactions makes us who we are Ex Vid on Harold and Kumar 0 If things appear to be real they are real in their consequences Peter Berger statements about how the world works Sociologists believe theory on empirical studies 0 Ex Theory in punished is hypercriminalization Helps us find the right answer to questions but more important the right actions for social change we need theory to identify and implement transformation Marx and Conflict Theory Conflict btwn classes Ex 99 movement Bourgeoisie Those who own most of society39s wealth and means of production Historical Materialism History is created by economic relations relations of production The economic structure of a society material relations determines how non economic structures operate the superstructure o Everything and everyone is a product of society o Ex Produce a working class school is like a factory and then you work in a factory as your job Conflict arises btwn classes leading to social transformation 0 Marx Conflict 31514 439 PM Obedience is a central mechanism for organizing our social world Review What does Breaching teach us about Conformity Socialization Social Institutions The Social Construction of Reality Theor Some people are so conformed to certain attire that when people see a broken norm they do not know how to respond underwear in dining hall Constructing Reality dining hall dress a certain way and be sanitary The Social Construction of Reality If things appear to be real they are real in their consequences Peter Berger 0 Ex Race bc we make it to be real it has real consequences We all have differing view of situation and our perception of a situation will determine how we react Situations are often determined by interaction and perception not by objective facts 0 When we interact we create a certain type of reality together 0 Ex Group of students sitting in a class who do not pack up early Took a few times to interact but eventually socialized Even if one s interpretations of a situation are incorrect the consequences are just as real as if one had correctly interpreted the situation 0 Ex Doesn39t matter if race is real what matters is the value we put on race bc then it becomes real in its consequences 0 Ex Stock Market Watch news shows talk about stock market amp oil prices amp gold Sometimes it crashes based on scare that39s not real People get scared amp take out all their investment THE MAIN FOUNDERS OF THE SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH BIG 3 1 Conflict Marx 2 Interpret Sociology Weber Rationalization 3 Functionalism Burkheim Marx and Conflict Theory The history of asociety is the history of class struggles All our inventions have endowed material forces with intellectual life and degraded human like into a material force 0 ex Capitalism humans become objects that produce capital for The Man Alienation Humans are laborers by nature 0 Ex Birds fly around all day collecting twigs to build nests 0 We have labored to sustain and survive and support ourselves 0 Do not labor not human 0 Who are you laboring for Yourself human someone else stripping away your humanity alienating you from humanity Therefore when humans labor to create value for others they become disconnected from the core of their humanity Ex Working Class Hero by John Lennon interpreted by Green Day Obedient Born into a system where we produce workers System is designed so that not everyone is going to make it False Consciousness Look at slide The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas ie the class which is the ruling material force of society is at the same time its ruling intellectual force 0 If you have money you have the power to determine the law and to dictate social reality 0 If intellect creates reality then people with the power have the power to define reality 0 How would Marx explain that reality is socially constructed Powerful and the powerless Powerful get to dictate reality Working class can revolt move up or down the class which creates a reality 0 O O O Workers of the world unite you have nothing to lose but your chains If Marx is looking at this larger economic scale Weber teaches us how to look at the micro interpreting interactions amp creating symbols from interactions Describe the Diff between Marx and Weber Marx is Macro and Weber is Micro Interpretive Sociology Focuses on microscale social interaction Known as micro sociology Ex Social construction of reality as we interact we create larger structures 0 Gestures Rituals Face Work pretending to be Prof Rios talking to us moving hands interacting pretending to have knowledge and passing it to students Symbols Women Selling Cars Gender as a symbol Impression management Roles can39t talk like one of the guys pretend does not know Conflict btwn roles Studying Interaction Typologies Categories for each type of role innocent ladies etc Interpretive Sociology is informed by the ideas of Max Weber We act towards ideas concept amp symbols based on the meanings we give them 0 Ex Apple on Macbook think about Max Weber Wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism where he showed how Calvinism helped to influence the expansion of capitalism o in Calvinism to show salvation you have to acquire resources on Earth which becomes a symbol of your salvation when you die Believed we should examine the meanings we put on things What he calls Verstehen 0 Together in our interactions we create meanings like Apple symbol Rationalization Our actions and interactions are carried out in a system that Max Weber calls rationalization 0 Clean system In modern society affection emotion amp tradition is replaced by efficiency predictability calculability amp control 0 More people took economics than philosophy The process by which actions amp interactions become rules by efficiency predictability calculability amp control Individuals are socialized to follow efficiency predictability calculability amp control Incarceration Video Safety Orange 31514 439 PM Functionalism and Solutions 31514 439 PM Historical Materialism argues that based on Marx The economy determines social action 0 Economy links to materials which links to social action Rationalization is The organization of society based on efficiency control amp predictability Review Conflict Marx Interpretive Sociology Weber Conflict The history of asociety is the history of class struggles All our inventions have endowed material forces with intellectual life amp degraded human life into a material force Historical Materialism previous lecture Marx makes the argument that the economy lays an egg in its culture the egg came first not the chicken Interpretive Sociology Weber Weber influenced the creation of interpretive sociology founder Examine meaning amp purpose that individuals ascribe to their actions Weber provides key influence to this perspective 0 Weber is E of the founders Want to look at the meaning we put onto symbols and interactions The key to understanding interactions is by looking at the meaning we put into symbols Connecting Marx amp Weber Ex study college students 0 Marx economic crisis determines the ways we have to live and interact Dictating how we think of ourselves as ucsb student o Weber living In IV creates an identity Meaning we put on the UCSB sweaters or Greek letters they are also important meanings that dictate our behavior Rationalization As we create a culture modern society does this through becoming very able to make calculations predict things In modern society affection emotion and tradition is replaced by efficiency predictability calculability amp control The process by which actions and interactions become ruled by efficiency predictability calculability amp control Individuals are socialized to follow efficiency predictability calculability amp control Ex Prof comes in a teaches then another class comes in and another prof teaches and so on Examples of Rationalization Holidays Mother39s day is coming up give mom a hug and hanging out then back to SB or is there more Buy her flowers Make breakfast 0 Well oiled machine that has become part of our culture Fast Food predict French Fries here taste the same as in SF Rationalization gt Social institutions Authority gt Socialization gt Obedience Crime as an Example Conflict Theory Crime occurs bc of the unequal distribution of resources in our society ie an inner city drug dealer Interpretive Socioloqy Perspective of the person committing crime how the criminal constructs her understanding of the act she committed how she justified it Functionalism A healthy society needs crime Crime plays the role of building social bonds among non criminas Crime is a direct result of the way in which society is organized Gangs amp Functionalism The gang functions to preserve the neighborhood meaning structures record When jobs decrease gang increase 0 As a surrogate to provide what is lacking Gangs amp Functionalism The poor function to Do society39s dirty work Support the criminal justice enterprise Make us the middle class feel accomplished Give us a culture from which to derive pleasure rap music movies video games Functionalism Durkheim Concerned with the organization of individual actions into systems ofac on Crucial metaphor society is a living system a biological organism or living system Emphasis always on stability amp order Despite appearances the social world is organized in a logical rational way Solutions in Punished From At Risk to At Promise 0 Change the way we talk about them Supporting Teens to Overcome Adversity The Problem Economic Waster We spend more money on prisons than we do on public education 30000 per year per inmate up to 20000 per year per juvenile in state facility national average 88000 per year 0 Missouri 48545 How do we support and motivate young people who face adversity Goes back to Prof Rios story Grew up in poverty The Solutions Invest financially and empathically in the Lives of Young People Placed at Risk Dignity Enhancement as Crime Suppression Create a Continuum of Care Across Institutional Settings DIAGRAM Lecture 7 31514 439 PM Q One main reason for the build up of mass incarceration was A Response to Civil Unrest People in the ghetto were rising up and citizens were scared Review Functionalism Lecture 6 Poor people39s function 0 To know success we also have to know failure Functionalist Theory and Crime But so that the originality of the idealist who dreams of transcending his era may display itself that of the criminal which falls short of the age people who cannot succeed in society must also be possible One does not go without the other Durkheim Crime creates solidarity among aw abiding citizens Negative response to crime sends a message to everyday citizens communicative Methods From Latin Methodos a pursuit a journey In Soc methods are used to find an Empirical answer to a pressing a social question Standard rules that social scientists follow when trying to establish a causal relationship btwn social elements Two types 0 Quantitative seek to obtain info about the social world that is in or can be converted to numeric form Ex Incomes Survey 0 Qualitative attempt to collect info about he social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form Ex Punished Empirical Findings dependent on evidence derived from a study that is replicable Verifiable by systematic study rather than theory or pure logic Social Scientific Method Observe Define the problem Review the literature Observe some more Develop a theoretical framework and formulate a hypothesis Choose the research design Collect data Analyze the result Draw conclusions 9 39 Squot3939gtSquotquot Mass Incarceration The state provides welfare 30 day loan of houses a good thing helping the working class become middle class System of welfare Taxes which turn into welfare Creates marginalized classes Now we are a Free Market no longer welfare o Person makes so much money that the will trickle down and create jobs do not welfare or tax these people o Free market never reached the poor Govern the poor through Crime Control From Welfare State to Free Market to Punitive State 196039s and 197039s Cultural o Civil Rights Movement 0 Racial Demographic Transformation o 1964 Civil Rights Act o 1968 Crime Bill Economic o Deindustrialization industry left the ghettos 0 Expansion of Ghetto o Restructuring of Labor Market Begins o 19691976 22 look at slide Pres Nixon 1968 Harris poll shows 81 of Americans believe law an order is broken bc of Negroes who start riots 0 People moved away to suburbs bc they were scared Nixon undoubtedly will emphasize order in the cities for that is his best issueHe thinks he can tame the ghettos and then reconstruct them NY Times August 1968 198039s Cultural o Ware on Drugs 1984 Crime Bill 500 grams of cocaine vs 5 grams of crack cocaine 5 year mandatory in prison law was unfair and locked away many black people 0 Conservative Revolution Attack on Welfare Reverse Discrimination getting in to coegerace o 19851990 prison pop doubles 500k 1 mil Economic o Reaganomics Tax breaks for rich and corporations Dismantling of social programs and welfare state 0 40 of all blacks live in poverty 0 Unemployment 28 Million 1968 to 76 Million in 1968 Surplus population Pres Reagan The poor must work hard and they must work harder than the classes above them o Ex Prof Rios ppl reached out to Rios it is not just brilliance but the resources you have 199039s Cultural o Unprecedented Fear of Crime 0 Superpredator thesis 0 LA Riots o Zero toeranceBroken Windows policing Crack down on the small crime and prevent big crime from happening o 71 incarcerated are in there for non vioent crime Economics 0 Cold War Ends Defense spending drops by 20 billion a year 0 Technology boom for middle Class 0 Duaized Labor Market Professionalmanagerial or Service sector 0 1996 Welfare Reform Act Stratification The grouping of people according to differences in income occupation power privilege manner of living region where they live age gender or race etc Stratifications alone is not unjust per se Stratification is not necessarily unequal o It is when we add power privilege amp hierarchy that social inequality develops Cycle of Inequality Stratification gt Power gt System of Hierarchy and Privilege Based on any category of difference Race sexuality gender class etc gt Items for Midterm You May Bring 1 page of notes 8X11 regular sheet Typed of Written Double sided as small font size as you want Blue Book 810 questions 46 sentence essays example per answer is fine the more material more depth connecting Review for Midterm False Consciousness Main Arguments in Punished Bring in concepts and examples from readings Especially those not discussed in lecture Do not use too many examples that are used in class Structure and Agency Personal Troubled vs Public Issues Social Institutions Socialization The Social Construction of Reality False Consciousness Movies Safety Orange Jesus Camp Sociology Clips Conformity Obedience Authority Rationalization Masks 31514 439 PM Performance Masks Section before Midterm Punished Criminalization 0 Structure and Agency Agency choice will subjectivity Falsely imprisoned for something Structure Policy Laws Resources being available economics institutions norms Personal Troubles amp Public Issues 0 Sociological Imagination 0 Each one of the individuals in Punished have personal troubles drugs laws on them o If other people have the same problem and they have something in common then it is a public issue Have to think about it as a public issue to solve it C Wright Mills Interested in macro and goes to a micro level to understand it Methods Qualitative interviews or Quantitative surveys o Rios uses Qualitative in Punished Marx Power over means of production factories land False Consciousness Reality is socially constructed Ex Gender differences laws Sociology 1 Dr Victor Rios Spring 2012 Office Hours Thursday 35 3012 Media and Social Sciences Building Course Overview and Objectives This course will teach students basic theories and methods utilized in sociology You will leave the course with fundamental tools that will guide you in understanding the complexities of human society social behavior and human groups Specifically you will learn about the differences between explaining behavior at individual and collective levels analyze the complex connection between individual biography and the history of society and apply analytical tools to social phenomena In the end you will have acquired an analytical empirical and epistemological tool belt that will help you think outside of the box and chip away at the layers of the social world that we take for granted The professor s expertise in ethnographic methods race masculinity deviance and social control will be emphasized in the course in order to ground students in some of the core areas of sociology Teaching Philosophy My teaching philosophy is that students take an active role in their education Your stories experiences observations and critical thinking skills will help us make sense of the social world around us I believe that students are not empty containers to be filled with knowledge by the professor but rather critical thinkers who are developing the skills necessary for understanding and transforming society Karl Marx a thinker often cited as one of the founders of the sociological approach once said The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways the point is to change it Your active participation in developing critical thinking skills for understanding society can provide you the seeds necessary for cultivating solutions to the social problems of the 21 century Teaching Katelynn Kenly Laurica Jonathan Daisy Daraka Alex Megan Assistants Bishop Brown Brown Gomez Gonzales Larimore Ornelas Tabag Hall Required Readings books available at UCSB Student Bookstore 1 Down to Earth Sociology Introductory Readings By James M Henslin 14 Edition Simon and Schuster 2007 2 Punished Policing the Lives of Black and Latino Boys By Victor Rios NYU Press 2011 Optional Book NOT REQUIRED You May Ask Yourself An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist Dalton Conley New York University Norton 2009 NOTE STUDENTS WHO DO NOT ATTEND THE FIRST DAY OF SECTION WILL BE DROPPED FROM THE COURSE No exceptions will be granted Students with disabilities Please see your TA as soon as possible to arrange accommodations Grading Percent Points Section Quizzes 20 200 Section AttendanceParticipation 20 200 Online ResponsesAssignments 20 200 Midterm 20 200 Final 20 200 TOTAL 100 1000 Participation Students are required to attend class and participate regularly in section discussion Online Responses and Assignments Each student is required to post a response to the reading every night prior the reading deadline ie every night prior to class You are to pick a quote from the reading that captures your attention e g a statistic a profound statement a new leamed fact an argument etc and write a oneparagraph response Pick one reading for each day two readings total per week to respond to e g if you have three readings assigned for one date you pick one of the three readings to respond to To access Gauchospace go to httpgauchospaceucsbedu Click on Spring 2012 Sociology Soc 1 The enrollment key code is Rios Please note I am open to your perspectives and opinions I encourage a diverse array of perspectives You will not be penalized in any way if you disagree with the readings TA s or I Social ExperimentsAssignments You will be given ve assignments The assignments will consist of participating in and re ecting on a social experiment See the course calendar beginning on page 4 below Details for this assignment will be discussed in lecture and section You will post a three to four paragraph response for each assignment on Gauchospace Midterm and Final An inclass short answer midterm and nal will be administered You are required to bring a small blue book to class on the midterm and final dates The midterm counts for 20 of your grade The final counts for 20 of your grade See calendar below for dates Theme Main Concepts Social Experiment Readings Week 1 Sociological Sociological Sense of Place April 3 Why Study Imagination Imagination How has your Society Structure upbringing shaped who April 7 Agency you are Respond with Henslin Ch 3 C Wright Mills agency and structure in Henslin Ch 1 Peter Berger mind Rios Punished Introduction see Gauchospace for more information Due Tuesday April 10 Week 2 Social Epistemology Breaching Experiment April 10 What is Institutions Social Institutions Break a social norm Henslin Ch 8 Horace Miner Society And The Social What happens Rios Chapter 4 Social Construction of Due Tue April 17 Construction Reality Socialization April 12 Henslin Ch 23 Philip Meyer Rios Chapter 1 Week 3 Marx Conflict Theory Breaching Experiment April 17 Founding Durkheim Functionalism number 2 Henslin Ch 39 GraceyCon ict Theories of Weber Interpretive Sociology Break a social norm Henslin Ch 33 Society Symbolic Interaction What happens GansFunctionalism Due Tue April 24 Henslin Ch18 Lawson Interactionism How do We Theory Cont Social Change and study Preservation April 19 society The Research Empirical Data Rios Appendix and review Ch 1 Week 4 The Research Process Cont Observe a Social Phenomenon in IV e g police April 24 Henslin Ch 41 Jennifer Hunt Rios Chapter 3 How is Social Social Control interactions courting order Control and Mass Incarceration events homelessness April 26 maintained Deviance The Youth Control workers sexism etc Henslin Ch 24 James Henslin 26 Complex Apply concepts learned William Chambliss and 27 Philip to observations Due Zimbardo Tues May 1 Week 5 Social Stratification May 1 How is Social Class Henslin Ch 29 Sidney Katz power Stratification Social Capital Henslin Ch 34 Morris and Grimes maintained Cultural Capital Optional Outliers Gladwell Ch 14 May 3 What is Gender Doing Gender Jones It s not where you live its gender Sexuality Feminism how you live Socialization Social Construction of ReaderGauchospace Gender and Sexuality West and Zimmerman Doing Gender ReaderGauchospace May 8 MIDTERM NO READING May 8 Week 6 Race Class Race Class Intersectionality May 10 and Gender and Gender Matrix of domination Henslin Ch 15 Donna Eder Henslin Ch 14 James Henslin Week 7 Race Racial Formation May 15 A History in Social Construction of the Present Race Ronald Takaki Introduction and Ethnicity The hidden origins of slavery on Whiteness Guachospace Henslin Ch 30 Martin and Hummer May 17 Peggy McCintosh The Knapsack GauchospaceReader Week 8 May 22 How does Culture and Culture Henslin Ch 31 Clarence Page and culture Institutions Ideology 32 Rafael Ezequil operate Subculture Hegemony May 24 Rios Chapter 5 Week 9 Globalization World System Theory May 29 It S a small and Transnational Henslin Ch 46 William Wishard world after Capitalism Capitalist Classes 39 R0biHS0I1 GaUCh0SPaC all May 31 Reading to be determined Gauchospace Week 10 the point however is to change it Social Movements Culmination Theories of Social Observe an event or Transformation organization on campus that aims to create social change Due TBA June 5 Gilmore Ruth You have dislodged a boulder Reading to be determined Gauchospace June 7 Henslin Ch 45 Laura Miller Rifkin GauchoSpace The Final exam is scheduled for Tuesday June 12 8amI I am Students are required to be present for final exam No exceptions will be granted The fascination of sociology lies in the fact that its perspectives make us see in a new light the very World in which We have lived all our lives Peter Berger
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