PSYS 371 WEEK FOUR
PSYS 371 WEEK FOUR PSYS 371
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erin@BSU on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYS 371 at Ball State University taught by Rohrer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Applied Behavior Analysis in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
PSYS 371 Unit 2 Notes 2/3/16 Respondent Conditioning of Reflexive Behavior (CH 3) Respondent Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus (ignites behavior) = unconditioned response o Not learned, innate; usually physiological o i.e. food…. salivation, high temperature…. sweating) o (Doesn’t need to be learnedinstinctive) o “automated behavior” behaviors that occur without thought Neutral stimulus= no unconditioned response o Response must be learned; when paired with unconditioned stimulus becomes conditioned response o i.e. music paired with food…. salivation o music…. salivation Higher Order Conditioning Music/Food…….Salivation; Music…..Salivation Candlelight/ Music…..Salivation; Candlelight….Salivation Other examples: o SLP: child cannot Speak Well…..Bad Feelings (need to talkdon’t want to talk don’t like SLP) higher order is SLP o Dated a guy 3 years ago and walked in the woods often, present day have a new boyfriend who you go camping with…you two walk in the woods and bad feelings overcome you (larger than conscious physiological response) Higher Order Conditioning for Real Life…… Can you think of an example of higher order conditioning that has IMPORTANT REAL Life relevance? Respondent Extinction Trying to remove paired response When the association ceases to produce conditioned response o i.e. music is no longer paired with food How long will it take? o About the same amount of time it took to get into your subconscious o Once that person or environment gets cuts out of the picture, it is easier to forget or uncondition oneself out of the behavior CounterConditioning (removing stimulus & add incompatible stimulus to initial expected response) Respondent extinction paired with incompatible stimulus Example? Aversion therapy o Ex: drink alcohol with drug to get sick & stop drinking o Ex: Electric shock when thinking about topic at risk Positive Reinforcement (CH 4) & Conditioned Reinforcement (CH 5) Increasing Behavior with Positive Reinforcement Reinforcement always increases behavior What is Positive Reinforcement? Positive reinforcers ALWAYS ALWAYS ALWAYS increases behavior o And if they don’t? –It’s not really a reinforce Examples: o Speech therapy: every attempt = gets to shoot a basket (if destructive) o Psychrelated: sing a song when wanting client to perform task o Nursing: stickers Operant Conditioning What is operant? –Conditioning that operates on the environment What are the stimulants in the environment that impact behavior? Changing the environment changes the behavior ENVIRONMENT CHANGE = BEHAVIOR CHANGE Ex: mom calling on Sunday = sick on Sunday, change call time to Wed = sick on Wed Why Reinforcement Selection is Critical You want the reinforcer to be valid o Why is it important for the reinforcer to be valid? If you want to reinforcer a particular behavior, the reinforcer must reinforce the behavior; therefore, it does what is is intended to do Select a reinforcer that affects the behavior in the way you intend o It’s not a reinforcer if it doesn’t work 2/5/16 How to Select a Reinforcer Case study design o What do you know about this individual? o What motivates them? o What stimulates them? Basic Motivation Theory o If you can determine the motive the individual is trying to satisfy, then you find a reinforcer that satisfies the original motive o Motives change…so should your reinforcer The reinforcer has to do better than the motive Ex: why would you move to an apartment if it’s not better in some way? Reinforcer Selection Strategies Presuming you are not God, you can never be 100% certain of the individual’s motive(s) or if the reinforcer you think will work will actually work Basic hypothesis testing o Hypothesize which reinforcer might satisfy the motive (i.e. affect behavior) o Select reinforcer(s). NOTE the (s)!!! o Test out your theory (implement the plan/ reinforcers) o Collect data o Analyze data (is it working?) o Adjust the plan/ reinforcers as necessary Always Use Yourself as the 1 Reference What reinforces your behavior? Do the same reinforcers always hold the same power? –Probably not! o So don’t expect the reinforcers you select for your client to always hold the same reinforcement power for him/her either! Why/ when do you shift reinforcers? o You probably have different reinforcers BUT each still satisfies the motive Have a menu of reinforcers available that you presume will satisfy the motive! Premack Principle (matching new behavior with established behavior) Examples: food (becomes stimulant to taking medications 3x a day), prayer before bed Why does the Premack Principle work? –use old behavior to ignite new one Satiation (you’re good) What is satiation? o Bored with it, not needed Ex: after eating, foot won’t be reinforcer Ex: Mom tells you you’re doing a good job 3x a day, but when Dad tells you that, it’s twice a year, once (no longer motivates bc it happens so often) Immediacy Relationship to reinforcement? o Is the reinforcer happening at the time of the event? When is an immediate reinforcer helpful? o After a behavior When is a delayed reinforcer helpful? o Gratification If reinforcer happens after the behavior, results are shown (positive) Delayed gratification: job after college (it doesn’t happen immediately) Rules Why are rules important? o Structure, consistency, predictability Why is is helpful to know the rules? o Will be likely to comply more quickly Can behavior change without knowing the rules? o Yes, but it takes longer…sometimes much longer Continuous reinforcement is rare. o How quickly they learn about the behavior & the consequence Intermittent reinforcement is typical. o More energy into an object sometimes working o Trying to get pen to work by blowing into it/ shaking it Contingent vs. NonContingent Reinforcement Contingent: reinforcer only occurs when behavior is being performed to criteria o Most of the time want contingent reinforcement NonContingent: reinforcer occurs regardless of behavior performance reaching criteria Consider examples & consequences o 100%, 80%, 50%, 0% Contingency o Ex: Contingent Reinforcement We’ll go bowling if you clean you room (Contingent) (Noncontingent) if bowling before trying as reward Your “A” was contingent on your behavior (studying/read) SLP: What is the contingency you want in the end Today this is really good, but next week I want it this way Behavior Prediction Based on Contingency Behavior…. Consequence…. Prediction Process of Positive Reinforcement Select Behavior Select Reinforcer Apply Reinforcer Wean the Program Pair natural Reinforcer with benefit o SLP: client can now be understood Increasing Behavior with Conditioned Reinforcement (CH 5) Conditioned vs. Unconditioned Reinforcers Unconditioned: o Reinforcer happens naturally (food, water, etc.) o Unconditioned reinforcers = Primary reinforcers Conditioned: (had to learn that they were a good thing) o The reinforcer was learned through association o Conditioned reinforcers = Secondary reinforcers o Ex: a smile, food, vacation Conditioned Reinforcers & Backup Reinforcers Conditioned Reinforcers: o There is no intermediary between the behavior & the reward (Note: this does NOT imply immediacy, A vacation may not happen immediately, but it is still a conditioned “secondary” reinforcer) o Ex: graduation Backup Reinforcers o When the stimulus becomes a conditioned reinforcer through association with other reinforcers o Ex: $$$. For most of us, money only holds value because of what we can do with it. The things you purchase with your $$$ are the Backup Reinforcers. o Ex: tokens are meaningful to the degree the backup reinforcers matter (prizes) o Ex: Getting an “A” on a test (reinforcer) o Ex: Good grades (backup reinforcer)
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