Week 3 Life 102 Notes
Week 3 Life 102 Notes Life 102
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Dingman on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Erik N Arthun in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
LIFE 102 Week 3 Notes 2/1/16, Continued from Friday’s notes Proteins: the most structurally sophisticated molecules known o Structure: polymers of amino acids o R= Side chain (a variable groups) o Amino group bonded to a carboxyl group o 20 different amino acids in proteins Depends on side group, amino acids can be Nonpolar or polar Uncharged or charged Acidic or basic o Peptide bonds link individual amino acids using dehydration synthesis o The primary structure of a protein is a series of amino acids that are peptide-bonded to each other o String of pearls o Primary structure is the order in which the amino acids are organized o Secondary Structure coils and folds upon itself forming an alpha helix or beta pleated sheet due to hydrogen bonds. o Tertiary structure when the helixes and pleated sheets fold upon themselves forming a 3-D structure Some proteins are done at this point o Quaternary structure is formed when more than 1 tertiary structures are combine together o The order in which amino acids are placed determines the 3-D structure that a protein will have under normal cellular conditions o Forces that stabilize tertiary structures: Hydrogen bonds Hydrophobic interactions Disulfide bridges- strongest bond Ionic bonds o Hemoglobin transports oxygen in the blood o Functions Enzymes- speed up chemical reactions Proteins that act as catalysts. Selective acceleration of chemical reactions Antibodies- keeps you healthy by creating amino acids that bond to foreign intruders not allowing them to infect your body further Structural proteins- Contractile proteins- Transport proteins- allow molecules to go in or out of our cells Cell communications- o Denaturation: loss of protein conformation Loss of protein function Can be irreversible Causes heat, pH, chemical conditions The protein unravels losing its natural shape Nucleic Acids o DNA & RNA o Polymers of nucleotides o Nucleotides consist of a sugar, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group o Call the backbone a sugar phosphate backbone o Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Double stranded helix Held together by hydrogen bonds Nitrogenous bases Adenine … Thymine Guanine … Cytosine Complementary- fit together like puzzle pieces A-T, C-G 2 Antiparallel- numbers refer to carbons, either the 5’ end or 3’ end will be located on opposite ends. Function: carry genetic information, blueprint of the cell, produces RNA o Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Nearly identical to DNA T is a U instead Single stranded mRNA: information goes to ribosomes rRNA: component of ribosomes tRNA: transfer o DNA provides directions for its own replication o DNA directs synthesis of messenger RNA and through mRNA, controls protein synthesis o Protein synthesis occurs on ribosomes 2/3/16, Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell All life forms have to be able to store information, store energy, protect themselves, and get rid of wastes Three regions of the cell: outer membrane, cytoplasm, nuclear region What features are common to all cells? o Plasma membrane- made of phospholipid bilayers o Cytosol- interior jelly like fluid o Chromosomes- information carriers o Ribosomes- translate information Most cells are 1um -100um o 1um= 1/1,000,000 of a metter o Eukaryotes Larger Can be multicellular or unicellular o Prokaryotes Smaller 3 Unicellular Why don’t animals have big cells? o A large surface-to-volume ration is needed to allow for optimal exchange of nutrients and gasses into and out of cells How do we study cells that we can’t see? o Microscopy Light microscopes Electron microscope Transmission EM 2-D Scanning EM 3-D Organisms are made of one of two types of cells o The domains Bacteria and Archaea consist of prokaryotic cells o Protists, fungi, animals, and plants all consist of eukaryotic cells o Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having: DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope Membrane-bound organelles Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and the nucleus Prokaryotes o Present in all bacteria: Nucleoid Cytoplasm Membrane Cell wall o No nucleus and no membrane-bound organelles Eukaryotes o Many specialized cell compartments o Advantage: increased division of labor o Have organelles o Similar to organs in our bodies 4 o Each carries out a specific, specialized function Membranes separate compartments o Phospholipid bilayer creates compartments Eukaryotes: Non-plant Eukaryotes: Plants o Central vacuole o Chloroplast o Plasmodesmata o Cell wall Nucleus o Present in all eukaryotes o Nuclear Envelope: double membrane surrounding nucleus o Pore complex: connects nucleus to cytoplasm o Chromosomes: DNA (genetic information) 2/5/16 Chapter 6 (continued) Information for the production of insulin is contained in double stranded DNA, a copy is made and used (mRNA) Amino acids are made as a result of a ribosome clamping down on the mRNA o The amino acids must still fold up to be functional The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions o Components of the endomembrane includes: nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, plasma membrane o These components are either continuous or connected via transfer by vesicles DNA in the nucleus is copied into RNA and the RNA exits and enters the ER ER is important because there is a rough endoplasmic reticulum which is covered with ribosomes, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks these ribosomes 5 o Smooth ER makes lipids o Rough ER makes proteins Once the protein is made with the ribosomes, the protein buds off in a vesicle and travels to the next destination o In this case, the golgi apparatus and fuses with the golgi apparatus o Proteins move through the golgi apparatus and bud off of the golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus has a receiving and shipping end o Golgi modifies the proteins by adding sugar or phosphate groups to make the protein fully functional (glycosylation) o This also adds the address label for the proper destination, it alters the protein or lipids’ function o Finally, it sips the proteins off to the final destination Plasma membrane, secretion (outside the cell), or lysosomes/vacuoles Lysosomes act as digestive enzyme vesicles o Digestion of food particles and damaged organelles o When food vacuoles enter the cell, lysosomes are sent to digest the food vacuole (phagocytosis) o When cell organelles are worn out, lysosomes are sent to digest the organelle (autophagy) Central Vacuole (plants/algae): large water storage for sturdiness and storage Endomembrane system: o The endomembrane system is a complex and dynamic player in the cell’s compartmental organization Non-endomembrane organelles o Mitochondria & Chloroplasts Endosymbiont theory: bacterium engulfed another bacterium and both cells were better off than before Energy transformer Semiautonomous (semi-independent) 6 o Peroxisomes 7
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