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Week 3 Life 102 Notes

by: Sydney Dingman

Week 3 Life 102 Notes Life 102

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Biology > Life 102 > Week 3 Life 102 Notes
Sydney Dingman
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Week 3
Attributes of Living Systems
Erik N Arthun
Class Notes
Life 102 Biology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Dingman on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Erik N Arthun in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
LIFE 102 Week 3 Notes 2/1/16, Continued from Friday’s notes  Proteins: the most structurally sophisticated molecules known o Structure: polymers of amino acids o R= Side chain (a variable groups) o Amino group bonded to a carboxyl group o 20 different amino acids in proteins  Depends on side group, amino acids can be  Nonpolar or polar  Uncharged or charged  Acidic or basic o Peptide bonds link individual amino acids using dehydration synthesis o The primary structure of a protein is a series of amino acids that are peptide-bonded to each other o String of pearls o Primary structure is the order in which the amino acids are organized o Secondary Structure coils and folds upon itself forming an alpha helix or beta pleated sheet due to hydrogen bonds. o Tertiary structure when the helixes and pleated sheets fold upon themselves forming a 3-D structure  Some proteins are done at this point o Quaternary structure is formed when more than 1 tertiary structures are combine together o The order in which amino acids are placed determines the 3-D structure that a protein will have under normal cellular conditions o Forces that stabilize tertiary structures:  Hydrogen bonds  Hydrophobic interactions  Disulfide bridges- strongest bond  Ionic bonds o Hemoglobin transports oxygen in the blood o Functions  Enzymes- speed up chemical reactions  Proteins that act as catalysts. Selective acceleration of chemical reactions  Antibodies- keeps you healthy by creating amino acids that bond to foreign intruders not allowing them to infect your body further  Structural proteins-  Contractile proteins-  Transport proteins- allow molecules to go in or out of our cells  Cell communications- o Denaturation: loss of protein conformation  Loss of protein function  Can be irreversible  Causes heat, pH, chemical conditions  The protein unravels losing its natural shape  Nucleic Acids o DNA & RNA o Polymers of nucleotides o Nucleotides consist of a sugar, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group o Call the backbone a sugar phosphate backbone o Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)  Double stranded helix  Held together by hydrogen bonds  Nitrogenous bases  Adenine … Thymine  Guanine … Cytosine  Complementary- fit together like puzzle pieces A-T, C-G 2  Antiparallel- numbers refer to carbons, either the 5’ end or 3’ end will be located on opposite ends.  Function: carry genetic information, blueprint of the cell, produces RNA o Ribonucleic acid (RNA)  Nearly identical to DNA  T is a U instead  Single stranded  mRNA: information goes to ribosomes  rRNA: component of ribosomes  tRNA: transfer o DNA provides directions for its own replication o DNA directs synthesis of messenger RNA and through mRNA, controls protein synthesis o Protein synthesis occurs on ribosomes 2/3/16, Chapter 6: A Tour of the Cell  All life forms have to be able to store information, store energy, protect themselves, and get rid of wastes  Three regions of the cell: outer membrane, cytoplasm, nuclear region  What features are common to all cells? o Plasma membrane- made of phospholipid bilayers o Cytosol- interior jelly like fluid o Chromosomes- information carriers o Ribosomes- translate information  Most cells are 1um -100um o 1um= 1/1,000,000 of a metter o Eukaryotes  Larger  Can be multicellular or unicellular o Prokaryotes  Smaller 3  Unicellular  Why don’t animals have big cells? o A large surface-to-volume ration is needed to allow for optimal exchange of nutrients and gasses into and out of cells  How do we study cells that we can’t see? o Microscopy  Light microscopes  Electron microscope  Transmission EM 2-D  Scanning EM 3-D  Organisms are made of one of two types of cells o The domains Bacteria and Archaea consist of prokaryotic cells o Protists, fungi, animals, and plants all consist of eukaryotic cells o Eukaryotic cells are characterized by having:  DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope  Membrane-bound organelles  Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and the nucleus  Prokaryotes o Present in all bacteria:  Nucleoid  Cytoplasm  Membrane  Cell wall o No nucleus and no membrane-bound organelles  Eukaryotes o Many specialized cell compartments o Advantage: increased division of labor o Have organelles o Similar to organs in our bodies 4 o Each carries out a specific, specialized function  Membranes separate compartments o Phospholipid bilayer creates compartments  Eukaryotes: Non-plant  Eukaryotes: Plants o Central vacuole o Chloroplast o Plasmodesmata o Cell wall  Nucleus o Present in all eukaryotes o Nuclear Envelope: double membrane surrounding nucleus o Pore complex: connects nucleus to cytoplasm o Chromosomes: DNA (genetic information) 2/5/16 Chapter 6 (continued)  Information for the production of insulin is contained in double stranded DNA, a copy is made and used (mRNA)  Amino acids are made as a result of a ribosome clamping down on the mRNA o The amino acids must still fold up to be functional  The endomembrane system regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions o Components of the endomembrane includes: nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, plasma membrane o These components are either continuous or connected via transfer by vesicles  DNA in the nucleus is copied into RNA and the RNA exits and enters the ER  ER is important because there is a rough endoplasmic reticulum which is covered with ribosomes, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks these ribosomes 5 o Smooth ER makes lipids o Rough ER makes proteins  Once the protein is made with the ribosomes, the protein buds off in a vesicle and travels to the next destination o In this case, the golgi apparatus and fuses with the golgi apparatus o Proteins move through the golgi apparatus and bud off of the golgi apparatus  Golgi apparatus has a receiving and shipping end o Golgi modifies the proteins by adding sugar or phosphate groups to make the protein fully functional (glycosylation) o This also adds the address label for the proper destination, it alters the protein or lipids’ function o Finally, it sips the proteins off to the final destination  Plasma membrane, secretion (outside the cell), or lysosomes/vacuoles  Lysosomes act as digestive enzyme vesicles o Digestion of food particles and damaged organelles o When food vacuoles enter the cell, lysosomes are sent to digest the food vacuole (phagocytosis) o When cell organelles are worn out, lysosomes are sent to digest the organelle (autophagy)  Central Vacuole (plants/algae): large water storage for sturdiness and storage  Endomembrane system: o The endomembrane system is a complex and dynamic player in the cell’s compartmental organization  Non-endomembrane organelles o Mitochondria & Chloroplasts  Endosymbiont theory:  bacterium engulfed another bacterium and both cells were better off than before  Energy transformer  Semiautonomous (semi-independent) 6  o Peroxisomes  7


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