Psych 474 Week 3 notes
Psych 474 Week 3 notes Psyc 474
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Hinshaw on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 474 at Northern Illinois University taught by Ellen Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Psychological Basis of Sexuality in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Chapter 3 Female Anatomy *The following anatomy in this chapter is representative of cisgender women. Transwomen and genderqueer people do not necessarily have all the same anatomy. External Sex organs o Mons Veneris: Skin coving the pubic bone, usually becomes covered with pubic hair during puberty. o Labia Majora: the folds of skin on the outside of the vulva. o Labia Minora: the inner folds of skin in the vulva to protect the vaginal opening. o Clitoris: a piece of skin in front the urethral opening, meant for sexual pleasure. o Vestibule: part of the vulva containing urethral and vaginal openings. o Urethral opening: opening where urine comes out. o Vaginal opening: opening for intercourse and expands during childbirth o Perineum: Skin between vaginal opening and anus (opening to remove feces). Internal sex organs o Vestibular bulbs: internal bulbs which collect blood during sexual arousal. o Vagina: tube holding penis during intercourse. Unfertilized eggs are released out of this tube in the form of blood each month and babies usually pass through this tube during childbirth (sometimes passed through a surgical incision in the abdomen). o Cervix: opening at the bottom of the uterus which expands for childbirth. o Uterus: Sac in which fertilized eggs are implanted and carried in during pregnancy. Contains three layers: endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium. o Fallopian tubes: tubes linking the uterus to the ovaries. They consist of several parts: isthmus, ampulla, infundibulum, fimbriae, and cilia. Cutting the fallopian tubes is the most common form of sterilization. Ectopic pregnancy: fertilized eggs implanted outside the uterus, usually in fallopian tubes. o Overies: 2 small organs where eggs are produced, as well as estrogen and progesterone. Hysterectomy: removal of uterus and sometimes other parts Pelvic exam: exam used to test for cancer and other problems. Breasts: used to feed infants, sexualized in American culture. Menstrual cycle: cycle lasting about 28 days when an egg is released. If it is not fertilized, it sheds from the uterus in the form of a blood period. The 4 phases are called proliferative phase, ovulation, luteal phase, and menstrual phase. Regulation is controlled by hormones. Women are usually most sexually aroused during ovulation. Menopause: decline of the menstrual cycle and fertilization. Hormone replacement therapy: helpful for menopausal symptoms, but possess great amounts of health risk. Menstrual problems o Dysmenorrhea: cramping before or during menstruation. Most common problem. o Amenorrhea: absence of menstruation, can be a sign or infertility. o Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): physical pain, cravings, or depression before the menstrual phase. Chapter 4 Male anatomy *The following anatomy in this chapter is representative of cisgender men. Transmen and genderqueer people do not necessarily have all the same anatomy. External sex organs o Penis: organ use for sex, ejaculation, and urination Circumcision: surgical removal or the foreskin (flap at end of penis). Done for religious and/or health practices, commonality varies across cultures. American culture places great importance on penis size. However, women report being more concerned about a man’s communication skills than his penis size. o Scrotum: a sac carrying the testicules Internal sex organs o Testes: ovalshaped organs in the scrotum sac which produce sperm and testosterone. o Testosterone: aided by androgens, aids sexual development. Examples: facial hair, deepened voice. Also found in cisgender women, but in smaller amounts. (In order for transgirls to not go through male puberty, they must take androgen blockers as well as estrogen hormone to aid female sexual development). o Sperm: cells with tails which swim in the female after intercourse ejaculation to fertilize an egg. They also contain chromosomes and determine the biological sex or their offspring (typically an XX female or XY male combination). o Vas Deferens: a tube carrying sperm from the testis and out the penis for ejaculation. This tube is the tube cut when a cisgender man undergoes a vasectomy (preventing sperm from appearing in the semen and fertilizing an egg). o Seminal Vesicle: produces semen o Prostate gland: secretes prostatic fluid o Cowper’s Glands: produce clear fluid sometimes containing sperm. This is why pulling out is not a very accurate contraceptive method and commonly leads to unplanned pregnancies. o Semen: liquid ejaculated containing sperm. Common health problems o Urethritis: bladder and urethral inflammation o Testicular cancer: cancer in the testis. Selfexamination is important for early detection. o Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Growth of prostate gland from a non cancerous tumor: o Prostatitis: inflammation of prostate gland o Prostate cancer: cancer of the prostate gland Risk factors include age, family history, mutations, and race A rectal exam is used to diagnose Sexual functions o Erection: penis enlarges because of blood flow. Erectile dysfunction is when this fails. o Spinal reflex: causes erection to occur o Although erection is an automatic cause it can happen when person sees someone attractive. o If the spinal cord is damaged, erection can still occur, but the person will not feel physiological sensations. They can feel psychological sensation from seeing their partner react. o Teenagers often have frequent erection, and then these slow with age. o Ejaculation: a time when semen is released from the penis, containing sperm (unless a vasectomy has occurred). Begins during puberty and usually happens sex to impregnate a partner.
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