Beef Labs One and Two
Beef Labs One and Two ANSC 1000
Popular in Introduction to Animal Sciences
Popular in Animal Science and Zoology
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah B. on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 1000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Carolyn Huntington in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Sciences in Animal Science and Zoology at Auburn University.
Reviews for Beef Labs One and Two
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/08/16
Beef Lab Presentation 1 Group herd Adjective bovine Genus and species Bos taurus or Bos indicus Act of Parturition calving General term for young calf Young male bull Young female heifer Mature male bull Mature female cow Castrated male steer Bullock young male typically <20 months Heiferette heifer that has calved once and fed for slaughter Stag male castrares after sexual maturity Dry refers to a nonlactating female Wet used to describe a milking female Open non pregnant female Freemartin Female calf born twin to a bull calf; endocrine factors from male calf’s repro tract; >90% of female calves are infertile Parts Identiﬁcation Wholesale Cuts of Beef British Breeds : Angus, Red Angus, Hereford Origin: British Isles Characteristics: 1. Mature and fatten at lighter market weights (1000-1150lb) 2. Grow slower and have smaller mature size 3. Less muscular 4. More fertile 5. Less calving Difﬁculty 6. Live and reproduce longer Used as maternal breeds in crossbreeding programs Angus Color: Black Polled (some scurs) Scurs: small growths of hornlike tissue attached to the skin of polled or dehorned animals Mature Size: 1150-1250lb Origin: Scotland Most registered breed Red Angus Color: Red Polled Mature Size: 1100lb Origin: USA Characteristics: Same as Angus but red Hereford Color: Red body, white extremities Both horned and polled Mature size: 1150lb Origin: England Continental Exotic: Charolais, Simmental, Limousin, Gelbvieh Origin: Continental Europe Characteristics: 1. Larger mature size (1200-1400lb) 2. Later-maturing 3. Heavier-muscled; higher yielding carcasses 4. Less fertile 5. Increased calving problems 6. Less marbling —> lower quality grade Normally used as sire breeds in crossbreeding. Charolais Color: shades of white Both horned and polled Mature size: 1550lb Origin: France One of the ﬁrst ‘exotic’ breeds introduced to the US Simmental Color: Black, yellow to red and white Predominantly horned, some polled Mature size: 1500lb Origin: Switzerland Limousin Color: Golden red to light yellow Both horned and polled Mature Size: 1300lb Origin: France Gelbvieh Color: black; traditionally yellow to golden red Both horned and polled Mature size: 1300lb Origin: Austria and Bavarian region of Western Germany Brahman and Crosses: Brahman, Santa Gertrudis, Brangus Desirable Characteristics: 1. Heat tolerance (sweat glands) 2. Parasite tolerance 3. Crosses with British/Exotics produce high heterosis Undesirable Characteristics: 1. Nervous disposition 2. Pendulous sheath 3. Meat is tough dark cutters: agitated during slaughter more connective tissue in the muscle 4. Not adaptable to cold climates Brahman Color: White & gray predominant but various colors Horned Origin: India Santa Gertrudis Color: red Both horned and polled Origin: King Ranch in Texas 5/8 Shorthorn and 3/8 Brahman Mature size: 1450lb First beef breed from the US Brangus Color: Black Polled (Some horned) Origin: USA 5/8 Angus and 3/8 Brahman Mature Size: 1300lb Beef Lab Presentation 2 Cattle Handling Abuse is unacceptable Avoid slippery surfaces Handle them calmly Take advantage of cattle’s ﬂight zone Beef Industry Top Countries: Brazil, India, US Top States: Texas, Missouri, Oklahoma Beef Cattle Production Typed of Beef Cattle Producers Commercial: operation where animals are bred and raised for slaughter cow-calf: operator raises calf from birth to wean stocker-yearling: wean to 600-850lb feedlot: high energy feed to ﬁnish Pure or Seedstock similar to cow-calf, but sell bulls to commercial/purebred producers also sell heifers to other purebred producers may sell semen Economically Important Traits Reproductive performance, Weaning weight, Postweaning weight, Feed efﬁciency, Carcass merit, Longevity, Conformation, Freedom from genetic defects Reproductive Performance trait of greatest economic importance goals: 90%+ calf crop weaned; cow to calve every 365 days; calving season ~60 days repro traits have low heritability (<20%) birth weight & scrotum circum. high h^2 Improve Repro Traits improve their environment select bulls on breeding soundness exams crossbreeding to obtain heterosis for percent calf crop weaned use bulls with light birth weight (low dystocia) use bulls with large scrotal circumference Postweaning Growth growth from weaning to ﬁnish weight occurs on pasture or in feedlot measured in lbs gained/day 205-d wean wt + postwar wt = 365-d wt (yearling weight) postweaning wt = 160 x ADG Feed Efﬁciency & Carcass Merit FE is lbs of feed required per lb of gain Carcass merit measured by quality and yield grades quality: prime, choice, select, standard, utility measure palatability characteristics yield: US grades 1-5 measure amounts of fat, lean, and bone in carcass Veal vs calf vs beef Longevity & Conformation longevity: length of productive life (important when replacement heifer costs are high) conformation: relationship of form to function traits such as skeletal, udder, eye, and teeth Genetic Defects double muscling: enlargement if muscles dwarﬁsm mule foot (syndacty): hooves solid not cloven palate pastern syndrome (arthrogryposis): pastern tendons contracted; upper mouth not fused marble bone disease (osteopetrosis): marrow cavity of bones ﬁlled w bone tissue hydrocephalus: ﬂuid accumulated in brain; bulging forehead Double Muscling characteristic of Belgian Blue breed high dystocia high meat yields lean, tender cuts Selection EPDs: expected progeny differences used by breed associations to monitor individual or offspring performance report: birth wt, weaning wt, yearling wt, ribeye area, intramuscular fat, etc. compare individual EPDs relative to breed averages Replacement Heifers those that will conceive early in breeding season calve easily give a ﬂow of milk consistent with feed supply wean heavy calves Commercial producers and heterosis most use crossbreeding to take advantage of heterosis (hybrid vigor) needs to be adapted to breeds available, producer’s feed supply, market demands, and environment Feeding ruminant species: 4 compartments (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum) microbes ferment feed balanced rations: undernourished are more vulnerable to disease cows & heifers should be in moderate body condition at calving Teeth Cow-calf manangement producers want to generate proﬁt analyze: calf-crop percentage weaned, wt. at weaning (5-9 months at ~500lbs.) anual cow cost (money required to keep cow/yr) Management for Optimum Weaning Weights calves born early in calving season heavier amount of forage available to cow inﬂuences weaning weight use of growth stimulants to nursing calves creep feeding calves genetic selection for good milk production crossbreeding Stocker-Yearling Production factors affecting cost and return: marketing gaining ability of cattle (good frame = potential) amount and quality of forage and roughage available (animals per acre) health of cattle need to be aware of current market prices loss of wt of the cattle from time of purchase to time cattle delivered to their farm “shrink” range is 3% - 12% takes time to recover from “shrink” Feedlot Cattle Management ﬁnish to market weight of ~1000 to 1350 factors involved: investment in facilities, feeder cattle cost, feed cost per pound gain, marketing Identiﬁcation visual id pitfalls: human recording errors and time delay electronic id (left ear) coordinates source id, animal movement & pathogen tracking (BSE/FMD) market pays premium for traceability allows backtracking for quality concerns evacuation and relocation (natural disasters) records performance data for herd automatically tattoo (herd number inside ear in case tags rip out) branding (freeze brand or hot brand to substantiate ownership) Prevention productive animals are in good health mortality (death loss) versus morbidity (sick) proper record keeping proper nutrition vaccinate for immunity good sanitation practices clean up manure; keep areas well-drained Biosecurity Controlling disease within the herd vaccinate; low stress; keep records; use reputable foods Purchasing replacement animals quarantine new animals; purchase from reputable source Environmental and pest control footpaths; remove manure, pests, and dead animals Disinfection (on pathogen of interest) Visitors and Employees clean clothing, boots, vehicles; pets; travel out of country Detecting Unhealthy Animals visual observations: loss of appetite, listlessness, droopy ears, separated vital signs deviate from normal rectal body temp, respiration rate, heart rate
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'