Intro to Anthropology, Week 4 Notes
Intro to Anthropology, Week 4 Notes ANTH 1101 - 002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Sanacore on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1101 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Gregory S. Starrett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
ANTH 1101 – Week 4 Chapter 4 anthropomorphism – the attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman animals taxonomy – a biological classification of various kinds of organisms taxon – each species, as well as each group of related species, at any level in a taxonomic hierarchy morphology – the physical shape and size of an organism or its body parts homology – genetic inheritance resulting from common ancestry homoplasy – convergent, or parallel, evolution, as when two species with very different evolutionary histories develop similar physical features as a result of adapting to a similar environment ecological niche - any species’ way of life: what it eats and how it finds mates, raises its young, relates to companions, and protects itself from predators dentition – the sizes, shapes, and number of an animal’s teeth nocturnal – describes animals that are active during the night prehensile – the ability to grasp, with fingers, toes, or tail diurnal – describes animals that are active during the day hominins – humans and their immediate ancestors sexual dimorphism – the observable phenotypic differences between males and females of the same species cranium – the bones of the head, excluding the jaw mandible – the lower jaw postcranial skeleton – the bones of the body, excluding those of the head stereoscopic vision – a form of vision in which the visual field of each eye of a two-eyed (binocular) animal overlaps with the other, producing depth perception Lecture – February 1, 2016 homology – maintenance of anatomical features; inheritance of a particular physical feature, anatomical features shared because of common descent analogy – features of anatomy that are shared because of a common adaptation, not common descent skull – consists of cranium and mandible teeth – last longer than other parts of the body; don’t change very fast but when they do, they change for a reason; closely diagnostic of species; shows what the animal ate dental formula for old world primates: 2123 (on each side of the mouth) 2 incisors 1 canine 2 premolars 3 molars dental formula for new world primates: 2133 (on each side of the mouth) 2 incisors 1 canine 3 premolars 3 molars diastema – space between incisors and canines; allows jaw to close Lecture – February 3, 2016 primate locomotion 1. quadrupedalism a. plantigrade stance (back feet of a gorilla) i. knuckle-walking – dorsal digitigrade (back of the hand) ii. ventral digitigrade – front part of the hand (baboon) b. vertical clinging and leaping (lemurs c. brachiation – hanging underneath and moving by pulling yourself with things above you 2. bipedalism (humans) binomial nomenclature genus – group of related species; tell us about evolutionary trends species genus species pan paniscus homo erectus homo sapiens homo habilis Australopithecus (afarensis) – first primate genus with bipedal members Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus boisei are also sometimes referred to as Paranthropus robustus and Paranthropus boisei *check Moodle for the week’s handouts