AN 1103, Chapter 19 Notes
AN 1103, Chapter 19 Notes AN 1103
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Falyn Ruby on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Professor Jean Marcus in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Introduction to Anthropology Chapter 19 Notes Technical Information Species concept o Species concept is a large problem when trying to interpret the fossil record Extant (living) – species is defined as populations that can reproduce with other populations to produce offspring that can also reproduce Extinct (dead) –species is based on form (morphology) o Two ways to write a genus and species name Underlined Italicized Genus is always capitalized; species is in lowercase Genus – group of closely related species, plural = genera Subspecies – shows geographical variation Ex: different breeds of cats/dogs Cartouche – circle drawn around names in hieroglyphics Study of dental formulas o Teeth can give scientists a lot of information concerning dietary adaptations, wear and tear, disease, development, age, sex, and cause of death o Dental formula: a short way to show the number and type of teeth on one half of the jaw Humans: 2123 - 2123 Placental: 3134-3134 New World Monkeys (Platyrrhines): 2133 – 2133 Old World monkeys, apes, humans (catarrhines): 2123- 2123 Prosimians: Lorises, lemurs: 2133-2133 Indris: 2123-2033 Aye-ayes: 1013-1003 Tarsiers: 2133-1133 o Primates have less teeth usually because of tooth reduction o DF helps to classify primates and primate fossils Primate molar pattern o Apes and humans have a y-5, lower molars have five cusps and a y shaped groove inbetween o Bilophodont molars – cusp pattern of two long ridges running parallel to the cheeks CP3 Complex (canine premolar 3/honing complex) o All hominoids except humans have canines and a canine diastema o Sectorial premolar – tooth that sharpens the canines o Used for defense, diet, and aggression Eruption of Molars o Humans sets of teeth Deciduous – baby Permanent Molars o Molar 1 – 6 years o Molar 2 – 12 years o Molar 3 – 18-21 (wisdom teeth) o Molar eruption patter can determine the age of death of a child Dental Arcade o Used to determine whether a fossil is ape or human Humans have a parabolic arch – distance between molar 3 and 3 is wider than molar 1 and 1 Apes have a u shaped arch Intermediate pattern – v shaped Enamel o Determines the family tree of a fossil Humans have thick enamel and apes do not Noses o Lemurs and lorises have a moist black nose attached to the upper lip, other primates do not o Catarrhine – humans, pointed nose o Tarsiers have a non-moist nose that is attached to the upper lip o Platyrrhine – flat nose with nostrils pointed outward o Tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans and haplorhini Sexual Dimorphism o Differences in body size between males and females Humans and chimpanzees – 88% Gorilla and Orangutan – 50% “harem” social pattern – marked sexual dimorphism Dominancy by males Monogamous species have very little sexual dimorphism Sagittal Crest o Sharp bone that runs down the middle of the skill and increases area available for the attachment of chewing muscles Widespread among male orangutans and gorillas Absent in chimpanzees Tails o Humans and apes do not have tails o New World monkeys have prehensile (grasping) or semi- prehensile tails which aid locomotion Ischial Callosities – found on Old World Monkeys and apes – tough hard skin found on the buttocks Cranial capacity o Relative intelligence o Defined as the volume of the interior skull as measured in cubic centimeters – measure of brain size not intelligence o Used for comparing intelligence Cranial Sutures o Joints of the bones in the skull after they have fused together Position of Foramen Magnum o Large hole at the base of the skull o Bipedalism – foramen magnum is In a forward position Estrous and Menstrual cylces o Non-human primates go through an estrous period or “heat” Visible sexual swelling Ovulation and sexually receptive Attraction for males o Human females go through the menstrual cycle and carry some of the same symptoms minus sexual swelling Receptivity is not limited to ovulation
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