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Organismal Biology Exam 1 Organismal Biology is really the study of Biodiversity (all of the life on earth) Systematics: study of diversification and relationships Biodiversity: number of species, genera etc. Classification: assigning of organisms to hierarchical groups o How we know were to place each organisms Phylogeny: evolutionary history o Use a number of techniques Taxonomy: the naming of groups of organisms o Units of taxonomy are called taxa o More than one is called taxon Charles Darwin drew in his journal a diagram of phylogeny or diversification of lineages of organisms o Several species in his diagram could have evolved from a common ancestor which shares another ancestor with another lineage of organisms o There is some ancestor that is common to all organisms o Tree-like diagram can represent the diversification Clade: Greek for “branch”; a lineage of organisms that is derived form a single common ancestor and contains all descendants Monophyletic: a lineage with a single common ancestor Holophyletic: a lineage including all descendants of a single common ancestor Paraphyletic: a lineage including some but not all descendants of a single common ancestor Polyphyletic: a lineage or trait found in independent lineages o Competing systematic Philosophies Cladistics: all taxa should be clades Monophyletic and holophyletic Evolutionary: taxa should share recent common ancestry and morphological similarity May generate some paraphyletic taxa o How do we establish clades? We want to look at characteristics that might unite certain organisms together Characteristics: Plesiolorphic: an ancestral characteristic Apomorphic: a derived characteristic Symplesiomorphic: a shared, ancestral characteristic Synapomorphic:a shared, derived characteristic o The most important in terms of how we define clades Autapomorphic: An unshared, derived characteristic Homologous: similar based on shared common ancestry Analogous: similar not based on shared common ancestry o Similar due to common function Homoplasy: an analogous trait or characteristics o Greek for same mold Convergent Evolution: the evolution of analogous characteristics is distantly related clades Parallel Evolution: development of similar characteristics in related, but distinct organisms descended form a common ancestor but in different clades Dendrogram: Cladogram: Phylogram: Rates of Evolution o Horotely: “normal” rate of evolution (diversification) o Tachytely: Fast rate of evolution (rapid diversification) o Bradytely: slow rate of evolution (slow or no diversification) Horse shoe crabs are an example Look the same as the did many years ago Eight levels of Taxonomic Organization o Domain: most inclusive level; capitalized o Kingdom: capitalized o Phylum (-a): capitalized o Class: capitalized o Order: capitalized o Family: capitalized o Genus (-era): italicized o Species: specific, exclusive; for a species name there should always be the specific name and the genus name o Example: Domain Eukarya Eukarya Eukarya Kingdom Animalia Animalia Animalia Phylum Chordata Chordata Magnliophyta Class Mammalia Aves (Reptilia) Magnoliopsida Order Carnivora Accitripiformes Fagales Family Felidae Accitripidae Fagaceae Genus Panthera Haliaeetus Quercus Species Panthera tigris H. leucocephalus (bald Q.virginiana (live (tigers) eagle) oaks) Sometimes eight levels of taxonomy are not enough o Super-: over and above o Sub-: under or beneath o Infra- o Tribe: between family and genus What is the most successful group of organisms out there? o Beetles o Over 300 thousand names o Classification for the Southern Pine Beetle Kingdom – Animalia (animals) Phylum – Anthropoda (anthropods) Subphylum – Hexapoda (hexapods) Class – Insecta (insects) Order – Coleoptera (beetles) Suborder – Polyphaga (water, rove, scarab, long-horned, leaf and snout beetles) No taxon – (series Cucujiformia) Superfamily – Curcuilonoidea (snout and bark beetles) Family – Curculionidae (snout and bark beetles) Subfamily – Scolytinae (bark and ambrosia beetles) Tribe – Hylesinini (Crenulate Bark Beetles) Subtribe – Tomicina Genus – Dendroctonus Species – frontalis (southern pine beetle Why 3 domains? Prokaryotes o What is a prokaryote? Prokaryote lacks a nucleus o Taxonomic clades are best defined using: Synapomorphies o Lacking a nucleus is a: Symplesiomorphy o Prokaryotes, which share the ancestral characteristic of lacking a nucleus, are not a recognized biological taxon (usually a lower case p in prokaryotes because it is not a taxon) o There are two domains of prokaryotes: Bacteria and Archaea – Moenra (Bacteria and Archaea grouped together) o Before modern biochemical techniques, only the limited morphological differences could be used to distinguish prokaryotes o Dr. Carl Woese (1928-2012) proposed splitting the prokaryotes into two novel taxonomic groups above the kingdom level in 1977 o His proposal was based on comparing the DNA sequences of genes encoding ribosomal RNA All organisms have ribosomal RNA o Looked at the nucleotide sequences, lined them all up to see where were their differences and similarities and determined that they were not all one big happy family but that they were two distanced clade o Woese proposed splitting out what he hypothesized were ancient bacterial forms into a new taxon, the DOMAIN ARCHAEA or ARCHAEBACTERIA Ancient because they were found in habitats that most scientists thought were reminiscent of what the ancient earth was like before we had oxygen wrist rich atmosphere the earth went through what’s called a Haiti in period where there is a lot of volcanic activity no oxygen in the atmosphere and a lot these Archaeans are found in habitats where there’s no oxygen gas around very hot temperatures extremes of pH and salt o Most Archaeans are found in extreme environments, reminiscent of the ancient Earth Extreme heat Extreme salt Extreme pH o Subsequent DNA data suggest a different story… they suggest that the archaeans are actually a sister group to the eukaryotes o In spite of the morphological and physiological evidence, Archaea and Eukarya form a monophyletic clade, distinct from bacteria This indicates that bacteria are more ancient than Archaea This indicates also that bacteria and archaea are not sisters to each other o Prokaryotes also share other ancestral characteristics No nuclei (or other membrane bound organelles) For example, you would not find a golgi apparatus or anything like that Unicellular or colonial: meaning comprised of a bunch of similar type of cell Not a lot of differentiation, no differentiation actually and if we remove one or a few of those cells they can grow into a new colonial organism Cells typically very small (1-5 um) Cell morphology limited – not a whole lot of different shapes like we see in eukaryotic cells o Cell morphology Typically, prokaryotes come in three shapes Spherical coccus (-i) Rod-shaped bacillus (-i) o E-coli Spiral spirillum (-a) o Cells can be solitary or colonial Staphylo “cluster of grapes” Staphylococcus o Very descriptive name because it describes the morphology of the colonies under the microscope Strepto “twisted chain” Streptococcus o Disease causing agent for strep throat o Most prokaryotes have cell walls Chemically distinct from eukaryotic cell walls Peptidoglycan Made up of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, glucose In gram-positive bacteria, there’s a single peptidoglycan layer that is found external to the plasma membrane, the peptidoglycan layer in gram-positive is what faces the environment and what absorbs that gram stain In gram-negative bacteria, most negative bacteria have an additional membrane layer outside of the cell wall with additional membrane layer which is outside of the cell wall prevents the stain from adhering to the peptidoglycan in which is why they do not get as dark purple So in some bacteria, they will have this outer membrane that are gram positive and negative and they contain lipopolysaccharides or carbohydrate chains with fatty lipids attached to them. Some of these polysaccharides can be important toxins that if you consume them they can make one sick or even kill you from these gram-negative bacteria Gram-Staining: the staining technique shows certain types of bacteria shown as dark purple which means that the bacteria are gram-positive; if others do not absorb the stain they would turn kind of pinkish which would be considered as gram negative Gram stain is a diagnostic device to examine cell wall composition so what’s happening is because prokaryotes have typically cell walls, walls are made up of substance that’s different from eukaryotes called Peptidoglycan o Other external features Capsule: a chemical layer external to the cell wall; outside of the cell wall and its function is that it is slimy or mucous like which enables bacterial to adhere to a certain substrate so if there for example is a pathogenic bacterium, the can help stick it to the host cells in its system so that they can stay attached and derive nutrition from their hosts while they are causing disease Fimbriae: Latin word that means fringe and they kind of resemble cilia or flagella but they are not the same shape as cilia or flagella Cilia are only found in eukaryotic cells Fimbriae can also help a bacterium anchor itself to substrate host Pilus: cylindrical, hollow tubes that can connect bacteria to each other and sometimes they are called a sex pilus because they can transmit genetic information in the form of loops of DNA form one bacterium to another For example, the donor cell is giving a plasmid or genetic signal to a recipient cell through its tube like structure Flagella: structure is very different in prokaryotes than what is seen in eukaryotes; constructed by microtubules that are cross-linked by motor proteins, but what we see in bacterial flagella is very different Flagella are similar because they both have whip like structures and are found on the surfaces of cells but they are not similar based on shared structure or shared common ancestry; therefore, they are not homologous structures, however, prokaryotes and eukaryotes are analogous Its good to have a whip-like structure in order to help with motility and both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have them but not by shared common ancestry o Motility Taxis: movement towards or away from a stimulus (positive or negative stimulus) Bacteria move through this process Positive phototaxis: movement towards the light o Useful if one is a photosynthetic organism because you need to go to where the light is in order to feed yourself Negative chemotaxis: movement away from a chemical signal o Toxin or a poison o Genomic arrangement No nucleus single circular chromosome A continuous loop of DNA Nucleoid: looks like a nucleus, but it is not. The nucleoid (meaning nucleus- like) is an irregularly-shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material, called genophore. In contrast to the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, it is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Plasmids: loops of DNA that are not part of the nucleoid; A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is distinct from a cell's chromosomal DNA. Plasmids naturally exist in bacterial cells, and they also occur in some eukaryotes. Often, the genes carried in plasmids provide bacteria with genetic advantages, such as antibiotic resistance. Peripheral or additional bits of genetic information that bacteria might use. All of the genes that are essential are found within that large chromosome within the nucleoid o Reproduction Binary fission: the cell division for bacteria and archaea because neither go through mitosis or meiosis Prokaryotes do not have a nuclear envelope so mitosis is not a universal process nor is binary fission, but this binary fission as a mode of reproduction is asexual. It does not increase genetic variability inherently, but we do know that prokaryotes are very diverse group of organisms. How do they come to be that way in the absence of sex? o In one way it is accomplished is through something called the Horizontal gene transfer: genetic information is passed from one cell to another cell so one cell to a sister cell rather than form a mother to a daughter cell This process can occur though: Transformation: this is when bacteria is able to pick up a loop of DNA (plasmids) or genetic information directly from their environment o Able to do this because there are little loops of DNA everywhere Conjugation: plasmids passed via pili; that’s where to live cells can exchange plasmids Transduction: virus-mediated. Bacteria have their own sets of virus that they can transmit to each other o DNA can be injected into bacterial cell, leaving the protein coat behind, and that nucleic acid molecule can be transcribed and translated by the bacterium that is receiving that particular virus o Endospores Bacteria forms endospores Endospores: form when nutrients become limiting or some other environmental factor makes it difficult for the bacteria to grow; can resist until conditions change; found in bacteria that are running out of nutrients and form a cocoon around the nucleoid which can resist the hard conditions such as lack of nutrients, water etc. They are very distinct; a mini cell wall forms around the nucleoid and protects the genome of the particular bacteria Important to finish a course of antibiotics because what will happen if you don’t is that the endospore will re-emerge and they may develop a disease resistance as a result Resistant form of bacteria Shell forms around nucleoid o Nutritional Modes (how do bacteria eat?) Prokaryotic metabolic diversity >> eukaryotic metabolic diversity This means that prokaryotes can eat a lot more different kinds of nutrient sources than eukaryotes. Not only in terms of food but they can use inorganic substances more efficiently than eukaryotes Heterotrophic: feeding on different things; humans are heterotrophic; they have to eat food derived from other living things because we do not photosynthesize or produce our own nutrients without feeding Autotrophic: feed themselves; example, an automobile drives itself if it is an automatic car Organisms that are photosynthetic Photoautotrophic: photosynthesize; they force the recording that are photoautotrophic and can harvest light energy and convert it into ATP and reducing power and then use that reducing power to fix carbon from the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide Photoheterotrophic: they can produce ATP and get energy from sunlight but they cannot fix carbon so they have to actually feed on organic carbon sources that they do not produce on their own Chemoautotrophic: capable of using chemical energy form the earth to produce their own energy and to produce their own source of nutrition so at the bottom of the ocean, for example, near thermal vents there are prokaryotes can take, for example, sulphides that are emerging, spewing out of the earth’s crust and produce energy and biomass just from the basic resources ** PROKARYOTES CAN BE ALL OF THE ABOVE** Eukaryotes can only be heterotrophic, autotrophic, and photoautotrophic o Oxygen relationships Aerobic Anaerobic Anaerobic respiration o Many different alternative terminal electron acceptors in prokaryotes o Aerobic organisms O2 forms water We breather oxygen in order to accept electrons from our food and that oxygen combines with protons in those depleted electrons and forms water So when we are breathing out, the oxygen we breathe is being turned into water vapor and the carbon dioxide that we breathe out is coming from our food Now the electrons that oxygen can accept can be very depleted in potential energy which means that aerobic respiration is the most efficient form of respiration in the sense that it produces the most ATP o Anaerobic organisms S, NO3-, Mn, Fe, U, CO2, etc. There are a number of ways to reduce using anaerobic respiration using terminal electron acceptor other than oxygen Anaerobic organisms can use a number of different things such as: iron, magnesium, sulfur, uranium Facultative vs. obligate (strict) There are a number of prokaryotes that can exist in the absence of oxygen or anaerobically just fine; in fact, there are some anaerobic prokaryotes that cannot exist when oxygen is present so they are located in places like sediments underneath water or deep in soils you can find obligate anaerobes Eukaryotes MUST HAVE oxygen Facultative anaerobes: can survive in the presence of oxygen or without the presence of oxygen Obligate anaerobes: CANNOT live in oxygen There are a number of different ways prokaryotes can ferment whereas eukaryotes cannot Fermentation: the process that keeps glycolysis going by removing electrons from NADH and it produces a number of different byproducts like lactic acid or ethanol, but bacteria prokaryotes have a number of other ways that then can ferment and other places to store those electrons from NADH so they are able to reduce that _____ plus keep glycolysis operating Flavor some of our fermented foods like yogurt, different types of cheeses and wines o Ecological relationships Most famous bacteria pathogenic: the ones that cause diseases and there are a number of very bad bacteria that could kill you Small amount of pathogenic bacteria that are disease-causing Free-living: bacteria can just be living without a host, not dependent on you or anything; they can get it from their environment which is just out in the world in the soil or in a body of water Mutualistic: provides a benefit to their hosts and the host provides a benefit to them Decomposers: taking nutrients that are locked up in the biomass of no longer living organisms and returning it to a form that other organisms can use Biofilms: groups of different species of bacteria and are capable of using each other’s waste products as the starting products for other organisms One bacterium’s waste product might be nitrate and another bacterium might use that nitrate to make ammonia and so forth, however, if you take a bacterium out of its biofilm, it will not behave the same way because they go off of each other’s waste products Very active form of research o Endosymbiotic theory The eukaryotic organelles mitochondria and chloroplasts of plants and algae were one free-living bacteria The mitochondria and chloroplast have their own DNA and ribosomes that the architecture of those DNA and ribosomes are more like prokaryotic DNA and ribosomes than it is like eukaryotic DNA and ribosomes They have an external membrane layer through the remains of the vestiges of a vacuole that may have engulfed those organelles Similarity to extant (still living) bacteria We still have living bacteria or extant bacteria that their similarity to these organelles in the case of mitochondria there are: In the case of mitochondria Alphaproteobacteria: capable of oxidative phosphorylation. They have a very folded up membranes. In the case of chloroplasts cyanobacteria: photosynthetic, photoautotrophic bacteria o Diversity in prokaryotes How many species? Difficult to tell How to find new taxa? Culturable species? Archaea and bacteria are not culturable; they will not grow in isolation or petri plates for any reason How do we know that these bacteria are out there if we cannot culture them? Metagenomic prospecting: a way of taking in environmental samples and instead of culturing it what happens is we take out all of the DNA and extract all of the DNA that we can from the environmental sampling and then use biochemical test (PCR) and amplify all a particular gene region from that environmental sample and when we amplify that gene region, it’s kind of like collecting fingerprints because each organisms has its own signature sequence of nucleotides for a particular gene and then count the number of signature sequences Find as many as 10,000 different species of prokaryotes by using metagenomic prospecting o Prokaryotes are NOT a taxon We want taxa to be clades meaning that if we want tax we want to be able to cut the tree phylogeny in one spot and have everything and only the things that we want to fall out so we can do that for the Archaea. We can cut the tree at the starting point where Domain Archaea is all grouped together. We exclude bacteria, we exclude eukarya so we can just get the lineage with the four branches. Can do it to any of the domains However, if we wanted to just cut the prokaryotes and have them just fall out, its not fair to just cut the tree where the eukaryotes are because you have to include all the descendants of the single common ancestor o Domain ARCHAEA 1-4 kingdoms (Archaebacteria) Gram-negative, lacking in peptidoglycans Extremophiles (the most famous archaebacterial) Thermophiles: love for extreme heat Halophiles: love extremely salty conditions; even saltier than the ocean waters Acidophiles: can grow at very very low pH (very highly acidic) Methanogens Strict (obligate) anaerobes, produce methane gas (also called swamp gas), they are decomposers, they can take sources of carbon dioxide from dead and decaying matter and recycle it and turn it into something other organisms can use Non-extreme archaea Four lineages or kingdoms of Archaea Korarchaeotes o “young man” o Also found in hot springs o One of the newest lineages found Euryarchaeotes o “broad” o Includes methanogens and some extreme halophiles, many others o The biggest branch Crenarchaeotes o “spring (body of water” o Thermophiles o Many of these organisms are found by hot springs Nanoarchaeotes o Parasitic on crenarcheote o “dwarf” o Smallest cells that have been found in nature o Domain BACTERIA Proteobacteria Diverse The groups in proteobacteria o Alpha subgroup Rhizobium: genus of bacteria that has a mutualistic relationship with the members or the plants in the Family Fabaceae (the pea family) and this relationship is important because rhizobium and other type closer related bacteria are able to fix nitrogen so they can take an environmental atmospheric nitrogen and they can convert it into forms of nitrogen that can be used for making things like proteins and nucleic gases. This is something we absolutely depend upon for getting our nitrogen and our nitrogenous bases and other forms of bioavailable nitrogen and this is part of the reason why peas and beans are good plant-based sources of proteins o Beta subgroup Nitrosomonas: very important in the nitrogen cycle and how nitrogen is made available to other organisms o Gamma subgroup Thiomargarita namibiensis: off the coast of southern Africa by the nation of Nabia and its claim to fame is that it is one of the largest prokaryotic cells. It’s 150 microns in size and that is a fairly unremarkable o Delta subgroup Chrondomyces crocatus: act kind of like they are fungi in a way but they are not fungi; they form spore-producing structures o Epsilon subgroup Helicobacter pylori: known for being important in ulcers; stomach ulcer bacterium was shown as a casual agent or part of a genesis of stomach ulcers Chlamydias Pathogenic and non-pathogenic Causes sexually transmitted diseases Spirochetes Pathogenic and non-pathogenic Typically, spirillum form looks like spirals or corkscrews Leptospira Cyanobacteria Photosynthetic Once called the “blue-green algae”) Oscillatoria Photoautotrophic, feed themselves with sunlight Gram-positive bacteria Forms a monophyletic and a holophyletic lingeage to all of the bacteria apart of it So if the gram stain turns purple and it is bacteria then we will characterize it as gram-positive Includes all descendants from a common ancestor Streptomyces: gives soil its earthy smell; smell of dirt Myces fungus like Mycoplasmas: they have lost their cell walls; small, tiny cells that can be bacterial diseases like tuberculosis that are very difficult to treat with antibiotics because many of out antibiotics interfere with cell wall production 1 too many kingdoms (up to 17??) Kingdom Eubacteria Comparisons of the Three Domains of life Characteristic Doman Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya Nuclear envelope absent absent present Membrane-enclosed absent absent present organelles Peptidoglycan in cell present absent absent wall Membrane lipids Unbranched hydro- Some branched Unbranched hydro- carbons hydrocarbons carbons Introns in genes Very rare Present in some Present in many genes genes Response to the Growth usually inhibited Growth not inhibited Growth not antibiotics inhibited streptomycin and chloramphenicol Histones associated absent Present in some present with DNA species Circular chromosome present present absent Growth at no Some species no temperatures > 100C RNA polymerase One kind Several kinds Several kinds Initiator amino acid formylmethionine methionine Methionine for protein synthesis Introduction to Domain EUKARYA and Protists o Review: there are three domains of life Domain Archaea prokaryotes Domain Bacteria prokaryotes Domain Eurkarya eukaryotes and protists o What’s great about being a eukaryote? They get to have sex They have complex organelles such as mitochondria Many have chloroplasts Produces lots and lots of ATP They are multicellular o What derived characteristics are found in Eukarya? Cells with nuclei Other membrane bound organelles Sexual life cycles Linear chromosomes Compartmentalized o What is meiosis? Mitosis, meiosis and fertilization Sexually-reproducing (meiotic) organisms’ alternative between having 1 copy of the set of chromosomes (haploid) and having 2 copies of a set of chromosome (diploid) Haploid to diploid through fertilization Diploid to haploid through meiosis They also vary in when they grow (by mitosis) The three life cycles Gametic Meiosis o Animals exist as diploid organisms o Start out as a zygote: first diploid cell o Zygote divides by mitosis in order to form a multicellular organism diploid o Meiosis - All animals are diploid until they want to reproduce and then the diploid cells go through meiosis going from diploid to haploid o The haploid cells are the gametes o They don’t go through mitosis anymore after they become gametes o Only route for them to continue to survive is to fuse through fertilization and form a new diploid cell, a new zygote o Mitosis occurs with diploid o Evolved second o Diploid organism forming from a zygote o Gametes being produced by meiosis and fusing with no further mitosis to form a zygote again after going through fertilization Zygotic Meiosis o Fertilization -The eukaryote Fungi are predominately haploid. They spend their life as a haploid organism which means that they are always haploid except when the gametes fuse in fertilization to form a zygote o Zygote undergoes meiosis and mitosis o Evolved first o The zygote does not divide by mitosis like animals do, it undergoes meiosis immediately and forms haploid cells. These can divide by mitosis to form a haploid organism. Then the gametes are formed not by meiosis like they were in animals but by mitosis o Mitosis occurs with the haploids Alternation of generations – Sporic Meiosis o Alternating Between Both Fertilization and Meiosis- mitosis occurs on both sides of the cycle (plants and algae) o There is both a haploid and diploid organism o Fertilization The zygote is divided by mitosis to form a diploid organism o Meiosis Occurs to form spore The spore can divide by mitosis to form a haploid which then can produce gametes by mitosis so both diploid and haploids o Evolved last o Evolutionary trends in eukarya Ancestral derived Unicellular colonial multicellular Unicellular o When it divides by mitosis it forms individuals and is reproduced o All one cell Colonial o Multiple cells together but all of the cells look more or less the same o They don’t have a division of labor o They don’t form tissues or organs or an organ system o They work together but each of these individual units is more or less the same o Green algae Multicellular o Brown algae, kelp o Different types of tissues and organs o Developed by colonial organisms o Began by a few specialized cells which were reproductive cells and they were the first way of dividing labor between different types of tissues Isogamy anisogamy oogamy All about the Gametes Isogamy o Gametes look the same (same shape and zie) Anisogamy o Microgametes and macrogametes The two fuze together o A little different sizes Oogamy o “oo” egg o Large gamete that resembles an egg and a small gamete which is akin to the sperm Zygotic meiosis gametic meiosis sporic meiosis Isomorphic heteromorphic Alternations of generations Isomorphic o Same in appearance Heteromorphic o Different in appearance Gametophyte dominant (haploid) sporophyte dominant (diploid) Dominant stage Alternation of generations only Haploid dominant diploid dominant Happens in plants, especially o Kingdom PROTISTA Not really a kingdom, rather a “dumping ground” Not considered to be holophyletic Not containing all of descendants of a single, common ancestor The joke by Jeff Foxworthy “you might be a protest if you’re a eukaryote… but you’re not animal… or a plant … or a fungus.” Protists are grouped together by characteristics that are derived relative to Archaea and Bacteria because they have nuclei and all the membrane-bound organelles But also by the lack of certain derived characteristics, relative to Animal, Plants, Fungi They are not holopyletic – it does not only include all of the descendants of a single common ancestor It is not a clade But how many kingdoms? For our purposes just one made of several clades Humans are under Opisthokants and shares a branch with the Amoebozoa, so if we were to cut the branch the clade would consist of both Opisthokant and Amoeboza The Kingdom Archaeaplatida are missing Land Plants because they are not algae Everything in yellow are protists and everything in white are called Crown Eukaryotes o Four clades of Protists Excavata: group of protists that looks like they have one side that has been scooped out or excavated Four Phyla o Diplomonadida Two equal-sized nuclei Heterotrophic: feed upon other living organisms by being free-living (swim around throughout the environment finding things to eat) or parasitic 2, 4, or 8 flagella lack mitochondria (secondarily) most anaerobic many live in the guts of insects or vertebrates Giardia Lamblia: intestinal parasite of humans and other vertebrates, especially warm-blooded mammals and birds o Parabasala Parabasal body: large modified Golgi apparatus Heterotrophic Axostyle: needle-like structure which helps give rigidity to the cell which makes up the organism 4 to 1000’s of flagella Anaerobic Lacks mitochondria Some with intracellular bacteria and surface attached spirochaetes Trichomonas vaginalis: causes Trichomoniasis which is a sexually transmitted disease in the human urogenital tract Trichonympha: termite gut Tricho: means mesh or thread; because of all the flagella o Kinetoplastida Heterotrophs, mostly parasitic (part of Euglenzoa?) Kintoplast: mass of DNA within single large mitochondrion Trypanosomes Trypanosoma brucei: African sleeping sickness carried by the tsetse fly – bites individual and infects them with trypanosome and swims between the red blood cells o Individuals become lethargic, spend most of their time sleeping and less of their time awake then eventually become paralyzed and die Trailing flagellum attached to cell by undulating membrane Bodo Saltans: Free Living kinetoplastid o Euglenophyta (** WATCH VIDEO AGAIN) Colorless heterotrophs and green photoautotrophs Longitudinal binary fission Euglena Two flagella in flagellar reservoir One locomotory and one non-emergent or short Stigma: reddish, spot that represents the eye spot in order to photosynthesize to view the light Paraflagellar body Made up of a large flagella and a shorter flagellum inside of the body Phototaxis Euglenoid (peristaltic) movement Chloroplast with three membranes Peranema: one trailing and one leading flagellum (thickened by paraxial rod except at tip Palmella: outburst of Euglenophyta Bloom: outbursts of euglenophyta “SAR” clade SAR is an acronym for the three major subclades Seven Phylum o Bacillariophyta Photosynthetic Marine, fresh water Cell wall and siliceous frustule, two valves (a shell) Centric: round outline, pennate: elongated outline Asexual reproduction with decrease in size When going through asexual reproduction, each of the daughter diatoms gets one of the valves When two valves separate, you can only produce a frustule inside the valve that the daughter diatoms inherent Gametic meiosis Diatomaceous earth: mined from areas that have lots of deposits of frustules; used for abrasive properties and for filtering different kinds of stuff Frequently called Diatoms o Phaeophtya Marine Photosynthetic macroalgae Multicellular Produce different types of tissues Kelp Holdfast, stipe, thallus, blade, meristem Align: use to support the body underwater Sporic meiosis Frequently called Brown algae Phyta: plant o Dinoflagellata o Apicomplexa o Ciliophora o Radiolaria o Foraminifera S is for Stramenopila o Straw hair o Refers to flagella o One hairy flagella or a tensile flagellum and one hairless flagellum, the whiplash flagellum Archaeplastida Includes plants Unikonta Includes plants and animals ** Excavata and “SAR” clade are monophyletic; Archaeplastida and Unikonta are paraphyletic
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