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Date Created: 03/15/14
Geology Chapter 1 Remote Sensing collecting info about distant objects wo physical contact ex eyes camera satellites LATITUDE N amp S amp LONGITUDE E amp W parallel lines that measure latitude Latitudinal Geographic Zones regions w fairly consistent qualities that can be used for reference or comparison Equatorial and tropical at equator Subtropical Midlatitude Subarctic Arctic Tropic of Canceramp Tropic of Capricorn sun directly overhead during solstices LONGITUDE need time to determine longitude meridian lines by which we measure longitude prime meridian central line by which we measure longitude designated as 0 degrees passes through Greenwich England GREAT CIRCLES amp SMALL CIRCLES GREAT CIRCLE any circle of Earth s circumference whose center coincides w the center of Earth infinite of great circles longitude shortest distance btwn 2 pts only one parallel that s a great circle equator SMALL CIRCLE a circle whose center does not coincide with Earth s center GREENWICH MEAN TIME GMT first used but then adopted COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME UTC Coordinated Universal Time based on avg time calculations INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE marks where each day officially begins at 1201 am Eastward subtract a day Westwardadd a day DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME 1 hour in spring and 1 hour in fall used to save energy 1 less hour of artificial lighting needed MAP PROJECTIONS the act of reducing a globe to a 2D surface a globe is the only faithful representation of the spherical Earth distortion always occurs how bad depends on scale of projection classic distortion is area other include distance direc shape amp proximity 4 types Cylindrical Plainer Conic Oval more specific Robinson compromise between accurate area and shape Mercator cylindrical poles are greatly distorted Geography Chapter 2 APHELION furthest distance from the sun NHsummer PERIHELION closest distance from the sun NH winter SH summer is slightly more intense than NH summerorbital geometry SOLAR ENERGY composition and amount of energy reaching Earth SUN SPOTS regions where the sun is shooting particles magnetic storms on the Sun changes amount of radiation in space reaching Earth ECCENTRIC Earth s orbit around the sun is slightly elliptical eccentricity changes reflects changes in seasons Auroras aurora borealis and aurora australis solar wind amp upper layers of atmosphere produce these lighting effects ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM WAVELENGTH amp FREQUENCY WAVELENGTH distance between corresponding points on any two successive waves FREQUENCY number of waves passing a fixed point all objects radiate energy in wavelengths that relate to their surface temps hotter the object shorter the wavelength amp the more radiation it emits Sun emits short wavelengths Earth emits long wavelengths shortwave radiationvisibe longwave radiation infrared SOLAR CONSTANT 342K or 1370 Wm2 240 or 238Wm2 of incoming solar radiation Earth INSOLATION intercepted solar radiation on a surface ZENITH when the sun is directly overhead SUBSOLAR POINT Q where zenith occurs only point on Earth receiving perpendicular radiation SOLSTICE time when sun is directly overhead at tropic of cancer or tropic of capricorn EQUINOX period in spring and fall when the poles are not tilted toward or away from the sun STEFANBOLTZMAN LAW all objects emit an amount of radiation proportional to the fourth power of their surface temps FEOTquot4 WIEN S LAW wavelength of max emission is shorter for hotter objects DECLINATION latitude of where zenith is subsolar point tropic of cancertropic of capricorn lat is 235NS equinox O poles during spring and fall DecJune 21 or 235 SeptMarch 21 or 0 SOLAR ALTITUDE 90 lat or declination based on if in the same hemisphere or diff DAYLENGTH duration of exposure to insolation sun up to sunset 12 hours year round in tropics locations away from equator experience continuous changes in solar altitude amp daylength North pole and South pole get 24 hours of daylight or no daylight during solstices REASONS FOR SEASONS REVOLUTION around the sun speed and distance from the Sun ROTATION on its axis Speed of rotation at different latitudes EARTH S TILT plane of ecliptic earth cut in half despite tilt plane of equator earth cut in half where equator is extremesno tilt no seasons amp all Iats would have 12 hours day amp nights long term less intense seasons AXIAL PARALLELISM Earth s axis maintains the same alignment to the ecliptic and to Polaris SPHERICITY uneven receipt of insolation from pole to pole CIRCLE OF ILLUMINATION divides the earth equally into day amp night halves forms a great circle 12 of the earth is always in the light SEASONALITY both the seasonal variation of the Sun s position about the horizon and changing daylengths during the year Geography Chapter 3 The atmosphere represents is less than onemillionth of Earth s total mass atmosphere is like a shell bound to Earth by gravity 3 atmospheric criteria COMPOSITION TEMPERATURE FUNCTION Air Pressure weight of the atmosphere exerted on all surfaces in contact with air we have air pressure inside of us too gravity compressed air makes it denser further away from Earth thin air COMPOSITION Homosphere closer and Heterosphere Homosphere density changes rapidly gases are well mixed variety exceptions ozone water vapor pollutants and few others Nitrogen from food amp soil Oxygen photosynthesis varies with latitude seasonal changes and lag time Argon less than 1 residue from the decay of potassium40 Carbon Dioxide natural product of life processes maintains global temp amount has increased bc of humans therefore global warming Heterosphere gasses are not evenly mixed layers according to atomic weight heaviest on lower part hydrogen amp helium are the lightest gases TEMPERATURE Troposphere closest Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere Troposphere atmospheric layer that supports life amp weather activity Normal Lapse Rate temp decreases w increasing altitude 65degrees Ckm Tropopause btwn Troposphere amp Stratosphere varies with season latitude amp surface temps amp pressures Stratosphere temps increases w increasing altitude bc ozone absorbs UV radiation ozone absorbs shortwave radiation amp reradiates at longer wavelengths FUNCTION removes harmful wavelengths of solar radiation amp charged particles Ozonosphere closer Ionosphere Ozonosphere ozone layer has many ozones 3 oxygen atoms convertsfilters certain wavelengths of UV radiation safer for Earth ionosphere absorbs rays amp shorter wavelengths of UV radiation turns atoms into positively charged atoms ions Geography Chapter 4 Scattering molecules changing direction of light s movement without altering its wa velength RAYLEIGH SCATTERING by air molecules intensity of scattering is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength of incoming radiation shorter the wavelength greater the scattering Sky is blue blue and violet scatter more than red light more blue to begin with eyes are most sensitive to blu green wavelengths Sunsets are red solar angles are low and longer wavelength solar radiation passes through more atmospheremore scattering happens MIE SCATTERING by dust and haze cloud droplets are larger than the wavelength of incoming radiation clouds are white hazy day sky is whiter light is white bc all wavelengths of visible light are equally scattered diffuse percentages 1015 on a clear day 2050 on a partly cloudy 100 cloudy REFLECTION Radiation is bounced back at space at the same angle it arrived at no absorption ALBEDO reflectivity of a substance or material whiteness ex snow concrete darker colors have lower albedos lower angle produce higher albedos ex ocean brighter in the morning more smooth higher albedo ex ocean clouds account of 2025 of planetary albedo biggest effect on Earth s albedo Earth s overall average albedo is 31 or 03 ABSORPTION assimilation amp conversion of radiation by molecules into a diff form things that absorb dust haze soot amp water droplets clouds after scattering reflection and absorption half of the radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere makes it to the surface 70 absorbed by earth amp atmosphere 30 albedo reflected 50 reachesis absorbed by Earth s surface 70 of incoming solar radiation 70 of outgoing solar radiation GREENHOUSE EFFECT Cloud greenhouse forcing an increase in greenhouse warming caused by clouds Energy from the sun energy out from the Earth 240 Wm2 of incoming solar radiation blackbody no atmosphere no greenhouse effect short wavelengths coming in amp long wavelengths leaving Earth Longwave radiation reflects off earth and then is trapped in the atmosphere amp bounces back to Earth s surface Main components of Natural Greenhouse Effect CO2 25 Ozone 8 GREENHOUSE EFFECT amp GLOBAL WARMING global warming is driven by the greenhouse effect properties of the gases we are adding to the atmosphere beyond their natural levels CO2 N20 CH4CFCs DUAL IMPACT OF CLOUDS ON EARTH S ENERGY BALANCE sunny day reflected back to space less coming to earth clouds keep temp warmer clouds used as a greenhouse blanket shortwave from sun get reflected back to space longwave from Earth stays under the cloud warmer FLUXES LW Fluxes emitted by clouds amp atmosphere hotter surfaces emit more LW Fluxes ex tropics where clouds cover rainforest amp trap radiation amp release less longer wavelengths lowest LW Fluxes in poles scale doesn t go to 0 only 100 because everything radiates energy SW FLUXES high shortwave high albedo in poles albedo is high but shortwaves is small FEEDBACK IN EARTH S CLIMATE ALBEDO positive feedback that cools or warms Earth negative feedback initial is cool and becomes warmer CLOUDS Cirrus Clouds warm bc greenhouse gt albedo more incoming albedo 2040 low thin amp wispy very high in atmosphere Stratus Clouds cools bc greenhouse lt albedo more reflected albedo 4065 horizontal not vertical and can be thick or thin CumulonimbusCumulus Clouds highest albedo lots of reflectivity huge clouds that are normally over tropics AEROSOLS IMPACT ALBEDO absorbs shortwave radiation heats atmosphere and cools surface rays don t reach surface FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS Earth is in radiative equilibrium over an annual cycle avg temp of the planet does not change greatly from year to year but spatial variation in net radiation SW minus LW Fluxes can be large Chapter 4 cont earth is in radiative equilibrium over an annual cycle avg temp of planet does not change greatly from year to year BUT spatial variation in net radiation SW minus LW fluxes can be large between tropics more energy is gained than lost in the polar regions more energy is lost than gained If there were no energy transfer the poles would be 25 degrees cooler and the equator 14 degrees C warmer Conduction transfer of energy heat through direct contact moleculetomolecule collisions ex boiling water the bottom of the pot touching the stove handle amp hand Convection transfer of energy heat through vertical mixing of molecules in a fluid like air or water ex boiling water inside a pot hot water rises in the pot cold air compacts amp sinks causes cloud formation if enough water is present causes energy to be transported towards the poles from the tropics primarily responsible for spread of heat throughout Earth Sensible Heat H heat that you measure w a thermometer what you feel transport of heat through conduction amp convection NOT sensing temp directly your sensing ois of heat through above Benjamin Franklin felt sensible heat flow on the metal amp wood Latent Heat L heat involved in water phase changes condensation water vapor to liquid warms amp evaporation opposite cools metals are good conductors of heat air is not but is a good insulator double pained windows Latent Heat Energy associated with water when it changes phases lots of evaporation feels cooler energy stored in water vapor during phase changes ex land with lots of cropsplants vs bare land feels cooler THE SURFACE IS HEATED BY SENSIBLE HEAT amp COOLED BY LATENT HEAT FLOWS DURING EVAPORATION THE ATMOSPHERE IS HEATED BY CONVECTION amp THE RELEASE OF LATENT HEAT take energy during evaporation and release during condensation Microclimatology Surface Radiation Balance net radiation SWdown SWup LWdown LWup net radiation balance of II radiation at Earth s surface varies w daylength through seasons cloudiness and latitude peak air temp is not at solar noon bc warmest time of day occurs at the moment when a max of insolation is absorbed amp emitted to the atmosphere from the ground daily temp as long as net radiation is positive air temp will generally increase outgoing earth energy as long as net radiation is negative air temp will generally decrease Chapter 5 Global Surface Air Temperature has to do with the position of the sun Temperature measure of average kinetic moving energy of the molecules in a substance does NOT depend on the of molecules just how fast they are moving for gas Heat total internal energy of a substance added together depends on the average kinetic energy amp the of molecules more molecules more heat GAS molecules move in random directions at a variety of velocities SOLID molecules are bound together amp not flying around in random directions temp is the average kinetic energy of the molecular vibration in thermosphere high average kinetic energy but very few gas molecules more space even though they are vibrating amp moving around more rapidly than molecules SCALES OF TEMPERATURE Kelvin starts at 0 absolute zero no kinetic energy no limit directy relatable to kinetic energy bc no neg s like C amp F 0 C 273 K 32 F melting point of ice each 1 K increment 1 C increment 18 F increment Principle Controls on Temperature Patterns Latitude insolation amp net radiation patterns most important Atitude atmospheric thickness LandSea Differences specific heat Cloud Cover amount of water vapor 50 of the Earth is cloud covered at any given moment highest average temperatures are in the tropics due to the high constant insolation in other words locations near equator are more constant ContinentalityContinental effect greater range btwn max and min temps land warms amp cools rapidly less evaporation surface is opaque lower specific heat no mixing btwn layers ex Kansas not near water Asia has the most continentality on Earth MarineMaritime effect water warms amp cools slowly places along coastlines or islands greater evaporation more water surface is transparent higher specific heat water has mobility amp mixes in vast ocean currents ex Santa Barbara is near the ocean controlling factor temp is more cool ex San Francisco and Wichita Kansas are both at the same latitude but SF is near ocean and Kansas isn t range in annual temps are very different Specific Heat describes the energy input required to raise the temperature of a unit substance by one degree K specific heat of water 4000 JkgK specific heat of soil and air 1000 JkgK it takes 4 times as much energy to change the temperature of water than soil or air warmest ocean waters amp areas of greatest evaporation latent heating are in the western Pacific Air Temp Patterns lsotherm a line connecting points of equal temperature on a temp map analogous to a line on a topo map connecting pts of equal elevation notice orientations of isotherms over mountain ranges and how they illustrate the cooling effects of elevation bend downward in North Am Thermal Equator a line connecting all points of highest average temp goes where there s lots of sensible heat ex Australia not a lot of evap hottest places would be Lybia Sahara Annual Temp Cycle natural lag takes time to warm and cool lag btwn peak annual insolation amp peak annual surface temp in midlat Coldest month late Jan early Feb Temp Max July August Minimum Late Dec largest temp range in North Am and Asia SH little seasonal variation bc of lack or large landmasses amp more oceans Gulf Stream like a gigantic river of warm water in the Atlantic 100 Sverdrups amount of water flow A explains why Iceland is green even though it is just below the Arctic Circle waterto land heat transfers latent heat transfers amp direct sensible heating of overlying warm water Temp in Western Europe less extreme weather bc of maritime influences gulf stream amp westerlies Westerlies winds moving from west to east California current amp temp in coastal California Oceans cool near by land water can directly warm or cool nearby land masses ex Gulf Stream California cool coastal climate vs Italy warm coastal climate strong upwelling of cold deep water along the CA coast Seasonality Max Temp Lowest Temp Siberia most extreme seasonality extreme continentality closest ocean Arctic mostly covered in ice low solar angles lat 67 deg N not a lot of solar radiation clear dry air w little water vapor amp cloud cover not a lot of insolation winds pick up cold air continental Aspect amp Slope Effects on Insolation amp Temp south facing equator facing dry schrubs north facing pole facing trees amp vegetation receives less radiation throughout the year cooler and wetter very little daily variation in temp as you go deeper into the soil transport of heat is conduction moleculetomolecule temps converge underground surface is heated by electromagnetic radiation then some heat is transferred to a thin layer of air How is Heat at the surface transferred higher up bubble of air gather at surface amp rise coe air replaces hot air no wind only small thermals will form amp vertical missing will not be great windy days heated surface air is transported aloft amp cooler air from aboce is transported downward thus reducing vertical temp gradients called mechanical or forced convection clear night surface cools faster than air get a reversal in the gradient radiation inversion Chapter 6 Air Pressure force or weight per unit area Nm2 energy per volume energy density units Jm3 measured by a mercury barometer not changing the number of molecules but increasing volume Sea Level Pressure 1013 mb 1013 kPa dea Gas Law PV nRT PressureVoume constant nuniversa gas constant RTemperature Pressure in the Atmosphere molecules are pulled closer to Earth compressed Air is compressible amp water is not ex pump up a tire w air not water Wind horizontal flow of air in response to differences in air pressure air pressure diff are due to uneven solar heating at the surface large scales big diff in solar radiation intercep amp surface heating smaller range albedo land vs ocean contrasts topography slope cloud cover high pressure cold air sinks pushes down on Earth low pressure hot air rises designed based on the direction they come from not direc they are going exception land sea breezes land heats up quicker than water daytime High wind over ocean goes to Low pressure at land opposite for night time 4 Forces that determine wind speed and direction Gravity pulls gas molecules close to Earth pressure decreases w height Pressure Gradient Force the difference in air pressure btwn areas drives air from areas with more dense air to areas with less dense air Coriolis Force deflects wind from a straight line to the right NH or left SH Friction Force drag on air flow from surface topography like buildings or hills Pressure Gradient Force PGF lsobars represent areas of equal pressure spacing btwn isobars indicates intensity of the pressure diff pressure gradient Gradual PGF isobars are far apart winds are weaker Steep PGF isobars close together winds are stronger PGF acts at right angles to the isobars Pressure gradient change in pressurechange in distance relationship btwn pressure gradient amp wind speed is positive amp linear Coriolis Force rotation of the Earth acts to deflect any object moving over its surface air amp water from straight line deflected from a straight line varies with latitude max at poles stronger min equator zero bc of diff rotation speeds at these latitudes this force does not act on objects at rest increases with speed of an object stronger on a faster object circumference of all other parallels decreases with increasing latitude circumference at 60 degree parallel is half he distance of the equator every point on earth rotates around a central axis at 15 degreeshour angular velocity Coriolis Force amp Air Flow Winds CF deflects 90 degrees to the left in SH CF deflects 90 degrees to the right in NH Geostrophic Winds PGF amp Coriolis forces are opposite amp balanced high altitude winds upper tropospheric winds that flow parallel to isobars Anticyclone rotates clockwise in NH High Pressure Cyclone counterclockwise in NH Low Pressure Frictional Force surface friction that reduces wind speed amp reduces the Coriolis force causes winds to move across isobars at an angle no rotating Earth no Coriolis Force greater in the upper troposphere because surface has mountains more friction Low pressure around the equator and High pressure at poles colder ITCZ lnter Tropical Convergence Zone rain belt solar heating in the tropics causes expansion of air amp thus decreases in density causing air to rise not a straight line bc of differential heating of land and water more energy into water to heat it upspecific heat June solstice over North more land December solstice over South more water position of the ITCZ tracks the sun migrates w the sun w some delay Doldrums calm horizontal winds within the ITCZ Hadley Cell Circulation convection currentloop close to the equator the complete circulation of rising air in the tropics low pressure system moist diverges sinks high pressure dry less dense so nses descends air over 30 degrees N and S and trade wings converge at the equator Buys Ballot s Law for determining pressure distributions if wind is at your back high pressure on right and low pressure on left NH Subtropical highpressure cells occur where tropical air descends in either hemisphere Surface Air Pressure of air molecules int he column amp to air temp at any height above the surface the pressure is lower in the cold column than in the warm column Monsoons seasona rains caused by movement of the ITCZ June 25 degrees N December solstice 25 degrees south Why is the air pressure in a warm column of air higher compared to a cold column of air at any given elevation Why does this difference create a pressure gradient force add heat molecules becomes faster and bump into things which increases pressure higher humidty higher pressure relatively drier air w lower relative humidity would have a higher surface pressure than wetter air Understand how convergence at the surface and divergence aloft and vice versa are related and how they maintain surface low pressure cyclones or surface high presure anticyclones low pressure diverges and high pressure converges identifying the map given date on continent where does ITCZ sit understand movement ITCZ change in pressure speci cally with monsoons what part of the year where is Gulf Stream is air is denserise dense parcel of air will sink only in upper tropospherewhen PGF and Coriolis are balanced winds run parallel to isobars normally winds run perpendicular to isobars gure 67 no geostrophic winds at surface ITCZ area of lower pressure sits at equator rising of warm moist air clouds see belt of cloudsprecipritation moves with subsolar point June 21migrates north moves back towards equator during equinox pattem is seen during monsoons south am asia africa brings moisture to these area A Clouds re ect scatter and absorb long wave radiation absorbs long wave and radiates long wave increases long wave down which means its hotter ICE H2O Water Vapor lt Release gt Absorb ex Measuring 2 surfaces water vs concrete which will have a higher latent heat ux ex sahara and rainforest which sees more heat ux beginning of chap 6 lesson pg 132 fig 62 study slide with barometer amp mercury and slide after atmosphere and water changes KNOW NUMBERS Cyclone LOW Pressure with the movement of the Earth NH and SH Anticyclones HIGH Pressure goes against movement of the earth density is lower at higher altitudes which causes lower temps Lectures 2226 Rewview guide 1 What are the primary processes through which sea level rises What is the driving factor water expands and contracts with temp changes sea level rises when temp rises even if the total mass of sea water is the same 2 Define latent heat of condensationevaporation How does condensation of water vapor onto grass at night affect the ambient surface temperature How does evaporation of water from grass in the day affect the surface temperature Latent heat of evaporation energy required to convert liquid to water to water vapor Latent heat of condensation energy released when water vapor condenses to liquid water 3 Considering the latent heat of evaporation would you expect the wet bulb on a sling psychrometer to have a higher temperature in a dry or humid environment 4 Why do subtropical deserts on average have a low relative humidity and high specific humidity in the driest air there is always water vapor highest value found in the tropics RH changes based on temperature air parcel can hold more water the hotter it gets but if dont change amount of water but increase temp it feels drier in desserts theres water specific humidity is high sun heats air temp increases SH remains the same RH gets smaller SH changes only if evaporation or condensation changes 5 How does the boiling point temperature change with altitude boiling point decreases and altitude increases bc of the decrease in pressure 6 How does temperature affect the ability of air to hold water Why do higher altitudes tend to receive more precipitation than lower altitudes for a given storm event warmer air greater capacity to hold water vapor higher altitudes mtn air is force to rise up then hits dew point and starts to precipitate 7 Why does an air parcel ascend in an unstable system You would expect rainfall to occur in stable or unstable air Why Stable stays where it is or sinks unstable rises ascends bc of differences in buoyancy 1 For what reasons does the ocean s surface generaly travel in the same direction as the wind above it friction overall Coriolis force main reasons why it doesn t travel in the same direction as the wind Coriolis friction and surface winds 3 What effect does westward intensification have on the elevation of the sea surface on western boundaries of ocean basins in the tropics the piling up of ocean water it raises the height about 15 centimeters trade winds blow which causes the sea levels to rise 4 Why is the upwelling most common along west coasts of continents colder water is brought up towards the top edge of contients brings the nutrients up also bc of Coriolis force forces surface water to move off shore and the water from below fills that space NH clockwise a eastern warm waters from equator b west coast cold waters but lots of nutrients 5 In which direction do mid ocean gyres circulate in each hemisphere Why Gyres diff pressures in the middle then to the outside right in NH left in SH 6 What is the path of the Gulf Stream What climatic impact does that have in Europe warms Europe the seasons are less extreme 7 Why does water wink inteh north Atlantic What is the name of te global oceanic circulation that this sinking triggers conveyer belt
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