chapter 7 PHLT 1568
Popular in nutrition/ healthy lifestyle
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kasi Greer on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHLT 1568 at Youngstown State University taught by Justin Rechichar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see nutrition/ healthy lifestyle in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Youngstown State University.
Reviews for chapter 7
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/08/16
Chapter 7: Body Weight and Body Composition Obesity Trends What Is a Healthy Body Weight? There is no ideal body weight for each person, but there are ranges for a healthy body weight A healthy body weight is defined as: Acceptable Body Mass Index (BMI) Fat distribution that is not a risk factor for illness Absence of any medical conditions that would suggest the need for weight loss What Is a Healthy Body Weight? Overweight is body weight that exceeds the recommended guidelines for good health Obesity is body weight that greatly exceeds the recommended guidelines No sex, age, state, racial group, or educational level is spared from these problems, although they are worse for the young and the poor Overweight and obesity are associated with serious health problems Body Mass Index BMI is a measure of body weight in relation to height There appears to be a Ushaped relationship between BMI and risk of death BMI may incorrectly estimate risk for some people Those with muscular build, BMI may overestimate body fat The elderly or others with low muscle mass, BMI may underestimate body fat Body Fat Percentage Different groups have different body fat expectations Healthy range for a typical male is 8 to 24 percent; athletes 5 to 10 percent Healthy range for a typical female is 21 to 35 percent; athletes 15 to 20 percent Below a certain body fat threshold, hormones cannot be produced and health problems can occur Body fat percentage can be measured by: Immersion (most accurate); Xray; skinfold measurement; bioelectrical impedance Body Fat Distribution Where you carry your body fat is important in determining your health risk A large abdominal circumference is associated with high cholesterol levels and higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and hypertension Obese men tend to accumulate abdominal fat Obese women tend to accumulate hip and thigh fat; however, the onset of menopause shifts weight gain to the abdomen If your BMI is in the healthy range, a large waist circumference may signify an independent risk for disease Issues Related to Overweight and Obesity Obese people are four times more likely to die before reaching expected lifespan and have increased risk for: – High blood pressure – Diabetes – Elevated cholesterol – Coronary heart disease – Stroke – Gall bladder disease – Osteoarthritis – Sleep apnea – Lung problems – Certain cancers (uterine, prostate, and colorectal) Diabetes and Obesity The rates of obesity and diabetes in the U.S. have risen in parallel 90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have Type2, the form strongly associated with obesity Approximately 80 percent of American youth with Type2 diabetes are obese A reduction in body weight by 7 percent through diet and exercise will reduce the risk of developing diabetes by 58 percent Discrimination and Obesity Overweight children are sometimes teased or bullied; weightrelated bullying does not stop when you reach adulthood The overweight face discrimination in hiring practices, lower wages, and social stigma A recent study found the overall, tangible cost of obesity for a woman was $4,879 per year, and for a man, $2,646 The Problem of Underweight A sudden, unintentional weight loss without a change in diet or exercise level may signify an underlying illness and should prompt a visit to a physician Some individuals have difficulty keeping weight on, and to gain weight, you need to change your energy balance Eating more frequent and energydense meals Add nutritional supplements as snacks Reduce aerobic exercise and increase resistance or weight training What Factors Influence Your Weight? Many factors contribute to this trend, both individual and environmental Genetic and hormonal influences Age and gender Obesogenic environments (food choices, eating out, larger portions) Lifestyle influences on weight Social networks Dieting and obesity Genetic and Hormonal Influences Your risk of becoming obese if both your parents are obese is 80 percent Twin studies suggest genetic tendency toward obesity Except in rare cases of a single gene mutation, genetics alone does not fully explain obesity Two dozen hormones thus far identified play a role in appetite and energy expenditure Genetic and Hormonal Influences Stress response affects eating patterns In response to stress, our bodies release adrenaline and cortisol, and fat cells release fatty acids and triglycerides in response Chronic stress increases the amount of fat deposited in the abdomen Stress also affects eating patterns; adrenaline will suppress the appetite, but cortisol stimulates it The thyroid gland controls much of your metabolic rate through hormone production When it is overactive, weight loss will likely result When it is not active enough, weight gain will likely result Age and Gender Poor childhood eating habits are believed to be a major cause of the recent surge in overweight and obesity Healthy body fat percentage changes as we age: children—12 percent; male adults—15 percent; female adults—25 percent Between the ages of 20 and 40, both men and women gain weight Older adults are susceptible to weight gain and need to be attentive to their lifestyle in order to maintain a healthy weight Obesogenic Environments and Lifestyle Our chances of becoming obese are significantly influenced by our environment Choice in food is driven by exposure, and cost and convenience In general, unhealthy foods are more convenient and less expensive than healthy foods Eating out has become a part of daily life These foods tend to be higher in fat and calories and lower in fiber than a homecooked meal When confronted with large serving sizes, people eat more and don’t realize it Portion Sizes Obesogenic Environments and Lifestyle The car, TV, and computer all improve our lives but have led to unhealthy habits 25 percent of short trips are taken by car versus riding a bike or walking Americans watch an average of 5 hours of TV a day If you are sedentary 23.5 hours a day, your 30 minutes of exercise isn’t going to reverse the negatives If your friends gain weight, you are more likely to gain weight Less sleep is associated with weight gain in young adults Yoyo dieting (weight cycling) contributes to the obesity trend People may lose weight initially, but most find it difficult to maintain the harsh restrictions They rapidly gain back the weight and sometimes gain even more The Key to Weight Control: Energy Balance Energy balance: the relationship between caloric intake (in the form of food) and caloric output (in the form of metabolism and activity) If you take in more calories than you use through metabolism and movement (positive energy balance), you store these extra calories as body fat If you take in fewer calories than you need (negative energy balance), you draw on body fat stores to provide energy Estimating Your Daily Energy Requirements The thermic effect of food: an estimate of the energy required to process the food Estimated at 10 percent of energy intake Basal metabolic rate (BMR): The rate at which the body uses energy to maintain basic life functions, such as digestion, respiration, and temperature regulation About 60 to 70 percent of energy consumed Between 10 and 30 percent of the calories consumed each day are used for physical activity Estimating Your Daily Energy Requirements You can estimate your daily energy expenditure by considering (1) the thermic effect of food, (2) the energy spent on basal metabolic rate, and (3) the energy spent on physical activities Adjusting Your Caloric Intake Reasonable weight loss of 1 pound to 2 pounds per week is a healthy goal A pound of body fat stores 3,500 calories To lose 1 pound in a week, you need to decrease your total intake for the week by that 3,500 calories Weight loss beyond these guidelines tends to include loss of lean tissue and a decrease in basal metabolic rate Foods high in complex carbohydrates have a greater thermic effect and take more energy to process than high fat foods The Diet Industry The diet industry effectively caters to people who are looking for “fast” weight loss The diet industry takes in about $61 billion a year The concept of fad diets has been around for decades, promising quick weight loss with minimal effort Many dietitians and physicians are critical of fad diets and encourage more balanced options and selfmonitoring concepts Weight management organizations offer group support, nutrition education, dietary advice, exercise counseling, and other services Weight Watchers: a commercial program Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS): a free program providing group support; focuses on teaching Overeaters Anonymous: a free program providing group support; more suitable for binge eaters or others with emotional issues related to weight The Medical Approach Verylowcalorie diets Require a physician’s supervision Prescription drugs Two types: those that act in brain to reduce food intake and those that act elsewhere in the body to reduce food absorption 1. Surgical options (should never be a firstline approach) Gastric surgeries 2. Nonprescription diet drugs and dietary supplements Diet teas, bulking products, starch blockers, diet candies, sugar blockers, benzocaine The Size Acceptance Movement Seeks to decrease negative body image, encourage selfacceptance, and end discrimination Emphasizes that people of any size can become more fit and benefit from healthier food choices The goal is to find a balanced approach that combines personal acceptance with promotion of a healthy body composition Tasks for Individuals Emphasize components of a healthier lifestyle: A balanced diet emphasizing fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in appropriate portion sizes 150 minutes of moderateintensity physical activity every week Reduced time spent in sedentary activities Target improvement in areas such as blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar level Inclusion of peer support Selfacceptance of body size Follow up evaluation by a health professional Set realistic, specific, measurable, attainable, and timely goals (SMART goals) Tasks for Individuals Many behavior management tools are available to help you learn new eating and activity patterns Stimulus control: identify environmental cues associated with unhealthy eating habits Selfsupervision: keep a log of the food you eat and the physical activity you do Social support and positive reinforcement: recruit others to join you in your healthier habits Stress management: use healthy techniques and problemsolving strategies to handle stress Cognitive restructuring: moderate any selfdefeating thoughts and emotions; redefine your body image by thinking about what your body can do Tasks for Society Changes in social policies are also needed to combat the obesity epidemic Promote healthy foods: lowering the price of lowfat, nutritious food would increase the rates at which people would buy them Support active lifestyles through community planning Support consumer awareness: if consumers don’t buy the products depicted in ads, or if they complain about the content of ads, food manufacturers will eventually respond Encourage health insurers to cover obesity prevention programs
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'