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chapter 7

by: Kasi Greer
Kasi Greer

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Body Weight and Body Composition
nutrition/ healthy lifestyle
Justin Rechichar
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kasi Greer on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHLT 1568 at Youngstown State University taught by Justin Rechichar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see nutrition/ healthy lifestyle in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Youngstown State University.

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Date Created: 02/08/16
Chapter 7: Body Weight and Body Composition Obesity Trends What Is a Healthy Body Weight?  There is no ideal body weight for each person, but there are ranges for a healthy body  weight   A healthy body weight is defined as: Acceptable Body Mass Index (BMI)  Fat distribution that is not a risk factor for illness  Absence of any medical conditions that would suggest the need for weight loss What Is a Healthy Body Weight?  Overweight is body weight that exceeds the recommended guidelines for good health  Obesity is body weight that greatly exceeds the recommended guidelines  No sex, age, state, racial group, or educational level is spared from these problems,  although they are worse for the young and the poor  Overweight and obesity are associated with serious health problems Body Mass Index  BMI is a measure of body weight in relation to height  There appears to be a U­shaped relationship between BMI and risk of death  BMI may incorrectly estimate risk for some people  Those with muscular build, BMI may overestimate body fat  The elderly or others with low muscle mass, BMI may underestimate body fat Body Fat Percentage  Different groups have different body fat expectations  Healthy range for a typical male is 8 to 24 percent; athletes 5 to 10 percent  Healthy range for a typical female is 21 to 35 percent; athletes 15 to 20 percent  Below a certain body fat threshold, hormones cannot be produced and health problems  can occur   Body fat percentage can be measured by:   Immersion (most accurate); X­ray; skinfold measurement; bioelectrical impedance Body Fat Distribution  Where you carry your body fat is important in determining your health risk  A large abdominal circumference is associated with high cholesterol levels and higher  risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and hypertension  Obese men tend to accumulate abdominal fat  Obese women tend to accumulate hip and thigh fat; however, the onset of menopause  shifts weight gain to the abdomen    If your BMI is in the healthy range, a large waist circumference may signify an  independent risk for disease Issues Related to Overweight and Obesity  Obese people are four times more likely to die before reaching expected lifespan and  have increased risk for: – High blood pressure – Diabetes – Elevated cholesterol – Coronary heart disease – Stroke – Gall bladder disease – Osteoarthritis – Sleep apnea – Lung problems – Certain cancers (uterine, prostate, and colorectal) Diabetes and Obesity  The rates of obesity and diabetes in the U.S. have risen in parallel  90 to 95 percent of people with diabetes have Type­2, the form strongly associated with  obesity  Approximately 80 percent of American youth with Type­2 diabetes are obese  A reduction in body weight by 7 percent through diet and exercise will reduce the risk of  developing diabetes by 58 percent Discrimination and Obesity  Overweight children are sometimes teased or bullied; weight­related bullying does not  stop when you reach adulthood  The overweight face discrimination in hiring practices, lower wages, and social stigma  A recent study found the overall, tangible cost of obesity for a woman was $4,879 per  year, and for a man, $2,646 The Problem of Underweight  A sudden, unintentional weight loss without a change in diet or exercise level may  signify an underlying illness and should prompt a visit to a physician  Some individuals have difficulty keeping weight on, and to gain weight, you need to  change your energy balance  Eating more frequent and energy­dense meals  Add nutritional supplements as snacks  Reduce aerobic exercise and increase resistance  or weight training What Factors Influence Your Weight?  Many factors contribute to this trend, both individual and environmental  Genetic and hormonal influences  Age and gender  Obesogenic environments (food choices, eating out, larger portions) Lifestyle influences on weight  Social networks  Dieting and obesity  Genetic and Hormonal Influences  Your risk of becoming obese if both your parents are obese is 80 percent  Twin studies suggest genetic tendency toward obesity  Except in rare cases of a single gene mutation, genetics alone does not fully explain  obesity  Two dozen hormones thus far identified play a role in appetite and energy expenditure Genetic and Hormonal Influences  Stress response affects eating patterns  In response to stress, our bodies release adrenaline and cortisol, and fat cells release fatty  acids and triglycerides in response  Chronic stress increases the amount of fat deposited in the abdomen  Stress also affects eating patterns; adrenaline will suppress the appetite, but cortisol  stimulates it  The thyroid gland controls much of your metabolic rate through hormone production  When it is overactive, weight loss will likely result  When it is not active enough, weight gain will likely result  Age and Gender  Poor childhood eating habits are believed to be a major cause of the recent surge in  overweight and obesity  Healthy body fat percentage changes as we age: children—12 percent; male adults—15  percent; female adults—25 percent  Between the ages of 20 and 40, both men and women gain weight  Older adults are susceptible to weight gain and need to be attentive to their lifestyle in  order to maintain a healthy weight   Obesogenic Environments and Lifestyle  Our chances of becoming obese are significantly influenced by our environment  Choice in food is driven by exposure, and cost and convenience In general, unhealthy foods are more convenient and less expensive than healthy foods Eating out has become a part of daily life These foods tend to be higher in fat and calories and lower in fiber than a home­cooked meal When confronted with large serving sizes, people eat more and don’t realize it Portion Sizes Obesogenic Environments and Lifestyle  The car, TV, and computer all improve our lives but have led to unhealthy habits  25 percent of short trips are taken by car versus riding a bike or walking  Americans watch an average of 5 hours of TV  a day  If you are sedentary 23.5 hours a day, your 30 minutes of exercise isn’t going to reverse  the negatives  If your friends gain weight, you are more likely to gain weight  Less sleep is associated with weight gain in young adults  Yo­yo dieting (weight cycling) contributes to the obesity trend  People may lose weight initially, but most find it difficult to maintain the harsh  restrictions  They rapidly gain back the weight and sometimes gain even more The Key to Weight Control: Energy Balance Energy balance: the relationship between caloric intake (in the form of food) and caloric output  (in the form of metabolism  and activity)  If you take in more calories than you use through metabolism and movement (positive  energy balance), you store these extra calories as body fat  If you take in fewer calories than you need (negative energy balance), you draw on body  fat stores to provide energy  Estimating Your Daily Energy Requirements The thermic effect of food: an estimate of the energy required to process the food   Estimated at 10 percent of energy intake  Basal metabolic rate (BMR): The rate at which the body uses energy to maintain basic  life functions, such as digestion, respiration, and temperature regulation  About 60 to 70 percent of energy consumed  Between 10 and 30 percent of the calories consumed each day are used for physical  activity Estimating Your Daily Energy Requirements  You can estimate your daily energy expenditure by considering (1) the thermic effect of  food, (2) the energy spent on basal metabolic rate, and (3) the energy spent on physical  activities  Adjusting Your Caloric Intake  Reasonable weight loss of 1 pound to 2 pounds per week is a healthy goal  A pound of body fat stores 3,500 calories   To lose 1 pound in a week, you need to decrease your total intake for the week by that  3,500 calories  Weight loss beyond these guidelines tends to include loss of lean tissue and a decrease in  basal metabolic rate  Foods high in complex carbohydrates have a greater thermic effect and take more energy  to process than high fat foods The Diet Industry  The diet industry effectively caters to people who are looking for “fast” weight loss   The diet industry takes in about $61 billion a year  The concept of fad diets has been around for decades, promising quick weight loss with  minimal effort   Many dietitians and physicians are critical of fad diets and encourage more balanced  options and self­monitoring concepts  Weight management organizations offer group support, nutrition education, dietary  advice, exercise counseling, and other services  Weight Watchers: a commercial program Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS): a free program providing group support; focuses on  teaching Overeaters Anonymous: a free program providing group support; more suitable for binge eaters  or others with emotional issues related to weight The Medical Approach  Very­low­calorie diets  Require a physician’s supervision  Prescription drugs Two types: those that act in brain to reduce food intake and those that act elsewhere in the body  to reduce food absorption 1. Surgical options (should never be a first­line approach)  Gastric surgeries 2. Nonprescription diet drugs and dietary supplements  Diet teas, bulking products, starch blockers, diet candies, sugar blockers, benzocaine The Size Acceptance Movement  Seeks to decrease negative body image, encourage self­acceptance, and end  discrimination  Emphasizes that people of any size can become more fit and benefit from healthier food  choices  The goal is to find a balanced approach that combines personal acceptance with  promotion of a healthy body composition Tasks for Individuals Emphasize components of a healthier lifestyle:  A balanced diet emphasizing fruits, vegetables, and whole grains in appropriate portion  sizes  150 minutes of moderate­intensity physical activity every week  Reduced time spent in sedentary activities  Target improvement in areas such as blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar level Inclusion of peer support  Self­acceptance of body size  Follow up evaluation by a health professional  Set realistic, specific, measurable, attainable, and timely goals (SMART goals) Tasks for Individuals Many behavior management tools are available to help you learn new eating and activity patterns Stimulus control: identify environmental cues associated with unhealthy eating habits Self­supervision: keep a log of the food you eat and the physical activity you do Social support and positive reinforcement: recruit others to join you in your healthier habits Stress management: use healthy techniques and problem­solving strategies to handle stress Cognitive restructuring: moderate any self­defeating thoughts and emotions; redefine  your body image by thinking about what your body can do Tasks for Society  Changes in social policies are also needed to combat the obesity epidemic  Promote healthy foods: lowering the price of low­fat, nutritious food would increase the  rates at which people would buy them  Support active lifestyles through community planning  Support consumer awareness: if consumers don’t buy the products depicted in ads, or if  they complain about the content of ads, food manufacturers will eventually respond  Encourage health insurers to cover obesity prevention programs 


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