AN 1103 Chapter 5 Notes
AN 1103 Chapter 5 Notes AN 1103
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Falyn Ruby on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Professor Jean Marcus in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Introduction to Anthropology Chapter 5 Notes Primates Humans are primates, therefore anthropologists study the evolution, biology, genetics, ecology, diet, mating, reproduction, locomotion, communication, and social behavior of non-human primates “primate tendencies” Primate tendencies 1. Grasping hands and feet, opposable thumbs, nails 2. Shift from smell to sight as primary sense, stereoscopic color vision 3. Shift from nose to hand as a major tactile organ 4. Increase I brain complexity 5. Increased parental investment, tendency towards single births 6. Increased sociality o Visual Predation Theory – visual and tactile abilities to catch insects for food originated in the primates that lived in the underbrush/lower branches o Arboreal Theory – evolved by adapting to living in the tops of the trees where vision is necessary Major primate groups: o Prosimians (lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers) o New World Monkeys (night monkeys, titi monkeys, and spider monkeys) o Old world Monkeys (including macaques, baboons, and colobys monkeys) o Apes (gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans, siamangs, and gibbons) o Humans and ancestral hominids Prosimians – “pre-monkey” o Retention of rhinarium in lemurs and lorises; olfaction o Scent marking of territories o Only partial binocular vision o Shorter gestation and maturation o Varied dental formulae o Small mostly nocturnal o Lemurs Madagascar, 60 species, under 20 lbs, nocturnal, “toilet claw”, vertical clingers and leapers, monogamous, group life, 19 yr life span o Lorises India, Sri Lanka, Asia, Africa; 8 species; nocturnal; toilet claw; slow climbers; eat insects; 14 yr life span o Tarsiers Southeast Asia, 8 species, under 6 ounces, mark territory with urine, no rhinarium, no tapetum, elongated hands and feet, immovable eyes Alternate Classification - all primates are divided into two groups o Strepsirhine Lemurs Lorises o Haplorhine Tarsiers Monkeys Apes Humans Tarsiers have no rhinarium o Non-moist non-split nose o Immovable eyes o Rat-sized Monkeys o Divided into two groups that reflect their geographical range and evolution New World Monkeys Bilophodont molars – four cusps in two rows Platurrhini – flat noses with nostrils on the sides of their noses Live in tropical forests of Southern Mexico, Central and South America (marmosets, tamarins, howler monkeys, and spider monkeys) Smaller with broad, flat noses 2133 DF Prehensile tails Arboreal Old World Monkeys Catarrhine – pointed noses with nostrils directed down Africa and Asia Catarrhine classification 2123 DF Sharp and pointed noses Arboreal or terrestrial Larger Diurnal Non-prehensile tails or no tail Ischial callosities Apes o Larger than monkeys o Lesser apes Gibbons Southeast Asia Little-none sexual dimorphism Do not build nests Vocalizations Webbed feet Vegetarian Siamangs Malay peninsula and Sumatra Larger Malaysia and Sumatra Inflatable throat sac o Greater apes Gorillas Marked sexual dimorphism Largest primate Gentle and shy Central Africa Opposable thumb and big toe, knuckle walker Canines Sagittal crest, diastoma Vegetarian Migrate for food and nest makers Chimpanzees – common and uncommon Less sexual dimorphism West and Central Africa Genital to Genital sexual behavior Fish for termites with a stick Canines Knuckle walkers Orangutans Smaller than gorillas Borneon Large sexual dimorphism vegetarian o Y-5 dentition o Absence of tail o U-shaped dental arch o Highly intelligent o All are endangered Humans o Homo sapiens sapiens o Males are larger than females but only slightly o Meat eaters o 2123 DF o Parabolic arch What are the ethics surrounding the killing of primates?
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