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Week 4 Life102

by: Sydney Dingman

Week 4 Life102 Life 102

Sydney Dingman
GPA 3.7

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Monday Notes, Study guide will be up later today.
Attributes of Living Systems
Erik N Arthun
Class Notes
Life 102, Biology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Dingman on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Erik N Arthun in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Biology at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/08/16
Week 4 LIFE 102 Notes 1/8/16  Non-Endomembrane Organelles o Mitochondria  Semiautonomous  (powerhouse of the cell)  Got engulfed as a bacterium by a bacteria and they benefitted each other  They have a smoother outer membrane and an inner membrane folded into cristae  Inner membrane crates two compartments: inter- membrane space and mitochondrial matrix  Some metabolic steps of cellular respiration are catalyzed in the mitochondrial matrix  Cristae present a large surface area for enzymes that synthesize ATP  All eukaryotes have mitochondria o Chloroplasts  Semiautonomous  Got engulfed as a bacterium by a bacteria and they benefitted each other  Present only in plants and algae  Capture light energy  Chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll, as well as enzymes and other molecules that function in photosynthesis  Chloroplasts are found in leaves and other green organs of plants and in algae  Have a double membrane system  Sunlight energy is absorbed and is converted into chemical energy in the way of sugar o Peroxisomes  Specialized metabolic compartments bounded by a single membrane  Produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water  Perform reactions with many different functions  In all eukaryotes  Other structures in eukaryotic cells (besides organelles) o Macromolecular structures  Support- cytoskeleton  3 components o Microtubules  Thick, straight, hollow fibers of “Tubulin”  Cellular support and movement, organelle/vesicle movement, spindle formation o Microfilaments  Think solid rods of actin  Temporary structures, contraction o Intermediate filaments  Solid rods of keratin  Permanent structures and cell shape  In all eukaryotes  Organizes the cell’s structures and activities, anchoring many organelles  Cell- cell interactions  Extracellular components  Cell walls of plants o Thicker than plasma membrane o Protects the plant o Maintains the shape o Prevents excessive uptake of water o Made of sugars 2  Extracellular matrix (ECM) of animal cells o Made of glycoproteins o Support o Adhesion o Movement o Signals  Intercellular junctions o Neighboring cells in tissues, organs or organ systems often adhere, interact, and communicate through direct physical contact o Facilitate the contact o Types:  Plasmodesmata  Cytoplasmic connections between cells  PLANT CELLS  Tight junctions  ANIMAL CELLS  Prevent fluid transport across cell layer  Prevents mixing of contents from 2 compartments  Desmosomes  ANIMAL CELLS  Anchoring junctions  Hold cells together by linking intermediate filaments of adjoining cells  Gap junctions  ANIMAL CELLS  Cytoplasmic connections for molecular transport 3  NOT membrane-enclosed  NOT organelles o The Cell: A Living Unit Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts  Cells rely on the integration of structures and organelles in order to function  A macrophage’s ability to destroy bacteria involves the whole cell, coordinating components such as the cytoskeleton, lysosomes, and plasma membrane 4


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