Week 4 Life102
Week 4 Life102 Life 102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Dingman on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Life 102 at Colorado State University taught by Erik N Arthun in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Week 4 LIFE 102 Notes 1/8/16 Non-Endomembrane Organelles o Mitochondria Semiautonomous (powerhouse of the cell) Got engulfed as a bacterium by a bacteria and they benefitted each other They have a smoother outer membrane and an inner membrane folded into cristae Inner membrane crates two compartments: inter- membrane space and mitochondrial matrix Some metabolic steps of cellular respiration are catalyzed in the mitochondrial matrix Cristae present a large surface area for enzymes that synthesize ATP All eukaryotes have mitochondria o Chloroplasts Semiautonomous Got engulfed as a bacterium by a bacteria and they benefitted each other Present only in plants and algae Capture light energy Chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll, as well as enzymes and other molecules that function in photosynthesis Chloroplasts are found in leaves and other green organs of plants and in algae Have a double membrane system Sunlight energy is absorbed and is converted into chemical energy in the way of sugar o Peroxisomes Specialized metabolic compartments bounded by a single membrane Produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water Perform reactions with many different functions In all eukaryotes Other structures in eukaryotic cells (besides organelles) o Macromolecular structures Support- cytoskeleton 3 components o Microtubules Thick, straight, hollow fibers of “Tubulin” Cellular support and movement, organelle/vesicle movement, spindle formation o Microfilaments Think solid rods of actin Temporary structures, contraction o Intermediate filaments Solid rods of keratin Permanent structures and cell shape In all eukaryotes Organizes the cell’s structures and activities, anchoring many organelles Cell- cell interactions Extracellular components Cell walls of plants o Thicker than plasma membrane o Protects the plant o Maintains the shape o Prevents excessive uptake of water o Made of sugars 2 Extracellular matrix (ECM) of animal cells o Made of glycoproteins o Support o Adhesion o Movement o Signals Intercellular junctions o Neighboring cells in tissues, organs or organ systems often adhere, interact, and communicate through direct physical contact o Facilitate the contact o Types: Plasmodesmata Cytoplasmic connections between cells PLANT CELLS Tight junctions ANIMAL CELLS Prevent fluid transport across cell layer Prevents mixing of contents from 2 compartments Desmosomes ANIMAL CELLS Anchoring junctions Hold cells together by linking intermediate filaments of adjoining cells Gap junctions ANIMAL CELLS Cytoplasmic connections for molecular transport 3 NOT membrane-enclosed NOT organelles o The Cell: A Living Unit Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts Cells rely on the integration of structures and organelles in order to function A macrophage’s ability to destroy bacteria involves the whole cell, coordinating components such as the cytoskeleton, lysosomes, and plasma membrane 4
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