Notes for 2/8/16 - Week 3
Notes for 2/8/16 - Week 3 SPCM201
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gioia Fisk on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPCM201 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer E Bone in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Rhetoric in Western Thought (GT-AH3) in Communication at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Aristotle Monday, February 8, 8:56 AM → Paper 1 Assignment Hard copy at beginning of class, and online on Canvas/Vericite ○ (assignments) → Pg 174: Guide of Aristotle ○ Rhetoric: the art of finding, in any given situation, the means of persuasion → Three Divisions of Oratory: ○ Political (Deliberative) § "urges to do or not to do someth- passing laws § Time: the future § Goal: what is the appropriate course of action? ○ Forensic (Judicial) "attacks or defends somebody" - court system, proving § someone's innocence/guilt § Time: the past § Goal: what was just or unjust? ○ Ceremonial (Epideictic) § "either praises or censures somebody" § Time: the present § Goal: is this person honorable? § Ex. Gorgias' Encomium of Helen → Quote from the Reading ○ "Although the same systematic principles….to write treatises on the way to plead in court" (180) § Aristotle gives a just political handbook rather than the Sophists who write handbooks that are unjust → The Modes of Persuasion (181) ○ Inartistic Proof § "such things as are not supplied by the speaker but are there at the outset" □ Witness statements □ Evidence "under torture" □ Contracts ○ Artistic Proof § "such [things] as we can ourselves construct by means of the principles of rhetoric" □ Ethos □ Pathos □ Logos Artistic Proof ○ § "such [things] as we can ourselves construct by means of the principles of rhetoric" □ Ethos □ Pathos □ Logos § These are invented by the speaker → Quote from Reading "Of the modes of persuasion….provided by the words of the speech ○ itself" (181) ○ Personal character of the speaker - Ethos ○ Putting audience in a certain state of mind - Pathos → Ethos ○ Personal character of speaker - comes from the audience's belief, but can be influenced by speakers words in the speech ○ "achieved by the speaker's personal character" (182) ○ "when the speech is so spoken as to make us think him credible" Before, during, after - determines speech ○ ○ Good > Bad Character ○ Achieved through words spoken (not prior experience) → Pathos ○ "when the speech stirs their emotions" (182) ○ Rhetoric can be used to change the audience's feelings ○ Our judgments change as our feelings do → Logos ○ Persuasion through "proof or apparent proof" (181) ○ "Effected through speech itself" ○ Through a "persuasive argument suitable to the case in question" ○ Rationality, or "to reason logically" (182) → Dialectic vs. Rhetoric ** notes from Friday ○ Dialectic: process of question and answer (Socratic Method) § Socrates questioning Gorgias → Using Enthymemes, Examples, and Maxims as proof → Using Proofs ○ "Everyone who effects persuasion through proof does in fact use either enthymemes or examples: there is no other way…Speeches that rely on examples… ○ Syllogism: type of argument that gets used in dialectic § Clear major Premise (something that the audience already knows) § A clear minor premise § Clear conclusion § Works by logically laying out all information § Ex. All men are mortal - Socrates is a man - Therefore, Socrates is mortal ○ Enthymeme: a rhetorical syllogism used to persuade audiences § A clear minor premise § Clear conclusion § Works by logically laying out all information § Ex. All men are mortal - Socrates is a man - Therefore, Socrates is mortal ○ Enthymeme: a rhetorical syllogism used to persuade audiences § The heart of rhetoric § Unspoken major premise (audience fills in the gap) § A clear minor premise § A clear conclusion § Requires audience to fill in the blanks § Based on probability § Ex. Amel is taking SPCM 201 because she is a Communications Studies major" □ Syllogism: All Communications Studies Majors need to take SPCM201 - Amel is needs to take SPCM201 - Therefore, Amel is a Communication Studies Major ○ "Persuasion may come through…when we are pained and hostile" (182) - Pathos ○ "Persuasion is achieved…before he begins to speak" (182) - Ethos → For Next Time… pg. 217-226 ○ Describe characteristics of young men and elderly men ○ Name different kinds of topoi ○ Define and provide an example of maxim → Paper 1: Option A Traveled from city to city, paid to teach "rhetoric"/speech, and virtue ○ ○ Disliked by philosophers, considered to be unjust and immoral ○ Persuaded people with no regard for the truth ○ Politicians represent Sophists → Paper 1: Option B ○ Aristotle § Rhetoric necessary, but should only be used for just purposes
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