COMM 2020 Chapter 1
COMM 2020 Chapter 1 Comm 2020
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rae Britton on Monday February 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 2020 at East Carolina University taught by Eric Shouse in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Speech Communication in Communication at East Carolina University.
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Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.
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Date Created: 02/08/16
Chapter 1 GREEKS Aristotle definedrhetoric as the ability in any situation to discover the most appropriate means of persuasion o It was a subject taught by people known as Sophists : educated men who would travel from place to place teaching others how to speak persuasively The reason that books on public speaking go back to classical Greece is that region had a very particular history that gave rise to a focus on public speaking Athens was a relatively free place for many years – they developed laws and people owned property. Then Athens was conquered for 100 years. o What happens when conquered? Government takes the property. Athenians then regained the freedom. The freed Athenian people developed a democracy. o In a democracy how are property disputes settled? ARISTOTLE DIVIDED PUBLIC SPEAKING INTO THREE TYPES: 1- Forensic – arguing in court 2- Deliberative – arguing in the political assembly 3- Epideictic – ceremonial speaking No lawyers back then so, who prevailed in property disputes in court? People with money. If you wanted to have a say in the government you needed to be able to speak in the assembly for your interests And if you wanted to be influential, you needed to be able to give toasts to powerful people and make them like you. How do you go about making sure your son (women didn’t public speak) is able to do all these things? – Hire yourself a Sophist. Plato wrote about an encounter between Gorgias and socrates Gorgias: one of the better known Sophists. He was a very good speaker / very persuasive. Big fan of the power of rhetoric. He bragged about how he could use “verbal magic” to get people to do almost anything – even if it wasn’t in their best interest. As a result, he told Socrates that rhetoric was about the best thing that ever existed. Socrates said that rhetoric was a “knack” for manipulating public opinion. Rather than rhetoric, he valued philosophy which he felt revealed the real true. Socrates said Gorgias was like a cook who had a knack for seasoning unhealthy food in a way that people might enjoy eating it. You want somebody with real wisdom.. EX: go to a nutritionist to know what kind of food to eat … not a cook at Bojangles. Go to a philosopher Protagoras is another popular Sophist. Suggested that everything could be argued and encouraged his students to always know both sides of an argument. He said doing so was the only way to know which side they should believe. (wants them to debate) His critics said he merely instructed his students to make the worse case look better so they could win the debate. o Why would this be a problem? you could get away with anything. The Sophist, Isocrates (not related to Socrates) said that it was impossible for any person to know everything in every situation. o How do you think his experience as a traveler helped shape that opinion? Whats true in one place isn’t necessarily true in the next place. EX- “purple/gold” chant in NYC… Plato was not a fan of these traveling speech teachers known as Sophists. o And the reason for that was what happened to his teacher, Socrates. o Socrates believed in truth, justice, and the Athenian way. And if he felt that someone was not living up to high standards of truth and justice he would call them out on it – as he did to Gorgias. We know what Socrates thought about the sophists. What do you think they thought about him? Socrates was arrested and convicted of “corrupting the youth of Athens” and sentenced to death. He drank poison before they could murder him because he refused to break the laws which he felt were more important than any one man. o Do you think that was a noble decision or foolish one? He died by his morals Plato studied under Socrates. Plato doesn’t like Sophists now, because they used rhetoric to kill his teacher. o This is why Plato makes a strong distinction between rhetoric(manipulates) and philosophy (reveals truth) Plato doesn’t trust the people and imagined an ideal society run by a philosopher King. Aristotle as a different view of rhetoric – lays out how to do public speaking very well Aristotle had faith in the people… if you had two equally qualified speakers, each different sides of an issue, that the people would naturally prefer the one who was professing the truth o The catch: “equally qualified speaker” – how do you make sure theyre equally qualified? o You attend Aristotle’s academy Aristotle’s Academy would teach you about: o Logos – practical reasoning o Pathos – emotional proof o Ethos – speaker credibility Aristotle thought ethos was most important because you have to like and trust the person in order to care about what they’re saying ROMANS Cicero developed what are known as the 5 cannons of rhetoric. Put these with ethos, pathos, and logos 5 cannons of rhetoric 1- Invention: the creative act of identifying the best arguments for your case in a given situation. Like Aristotle, Cicero warned us to pay attention to the particular situation because he realized that not all audiences are the same 2- Arrangement: finding the most effective way to organize your case for the topic and the audience. (if you are giving a speech with 3 main points, where should you put your most interesting information? … depends on the audience. EX If they like you, put it in the end because they’ll remember it. ) 3- Style: involves your choice of words and how formally or informally you phrase things. 4- Delivery: how you physically and vocally present your speech. 5- Memory: if you’ve ever seen a speaker forget a name or fact and stumble, you know why memory is important. People used to have to memorize everything because paper was so expensive Cicero used his considerable skills as a speaker to try to have a positive impact on Roman society… he developed a reputation as a champion of the people and fought against the threat that the governemtn would be taken over by nobility or military dictators. The roman rhetorician Quintilian suggested that every speaker had 5 principle duties 1- Defend truth 2- Protect the innocent 3- Prevent criminal behavior 4- Inspire the military 5- Inspire the public Socrates and Cicero died for these values… do you think they are still important today? / What do they require? Speak out about it… They could take your life. When people stop speaking out about it, itll just keep happening and we will lose truth and justice Public speaking is important because it is how we construct society’s rules, values and beliefs. Civic engagement is when we act upon our awareness that we have a responsibility to our community o Civic engagement has MODERN TIMES Model of public speaking: Environment Message encoded Code Feedback Stimulus Message decoded
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